Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Crucible Study Question Essay

1. What happens when people criticize the court proceedings? a. People are unfairly accused when they criticize the court proceedings. For instance, when Proctor comes to the court with Mary Warren to criticize the court for his wife unfairly with a petition, Parris exclaims that† ‘they’ve come to overthrow the court’ † (88). Proctor is merely attempting to show his evidence to protect his wife from being hung . Parris is unfairly accusing them for what they weren’t doing. 2. What role does Parris play in this scene? a. Parris portrays a flippant tone against the people at court during his role. Mainly, Parris plays as an informant for the judge but informs them in a biased way, which can be seen when he tells the judge to † ‘Beware [John Proctor], You Excellency, this man is mischief† (88). His remark brings unfair bias against Proctor due to diction. Diction such as mischief makes Proctor seem like a person who would undermine the court to free his wife. 3. Why does Proctor refuse to give up his story about the girls lying even though Judge Danforth would allow Elizabeth to go free for a year? a. Proctor carries an ambivalent tone. Incidentally, even though he first said he only was there to † ‘free [his] wife’ â€Å", he refuses to drop the charges against Abigail since his friend’s † ‘wives are also accused’ â€Å"(90 & 92). Ambivalence is portrayed with diction since he was first there to free his wife but then decides to not drop charges so that he can attempt to free his friend’s wives. This shows that he undecided from saving his wife. 4. Why does Mary Warren change her testimony about Proctor and about pretending? a. Mary Warren changes her testimony from supporting Proctor to going against Proctor. For instance, as Abigail and the girls are â€Å"pretending† that Mary Warren’s spirit is attacking them, she starts out by saying that â€Å"they’re sporting†, but soon she accuses Proctor, saying that he came to † ‘overthrow the court’ â€Å"(118 & 119). It seems that she knew that  Abigail and the girls would not stop acting until she went against Proctor. Also, she changes her testimony so that she could get out and join the â€Å"stronger† side. 5. How does Elizabeth attempt to save her husband’s reputation? What was the result? a. Elizabeth attempts to protect her husband but made it worse. For instance, Proctor takes a risk, saying that he had an affair with Abigail, but when Elizabeth is called out for supporting evidence, she denies that † ‘her husband [is] a lecher’ â€Å"(113). She was only attempting to protect her husband for being accused as a lecher but he needed her to say that he was a lecher. This resulted in Proctor losing any upper hand he had in court and losing reliability. 6. Why does Reverend Hale change his story about witchcraft? a. Reverend Hale changes his story after witnessing Abigail lie in court. For example, when Hale witnesses Mary Warren changing her story so that Proctor is in trouble, he exclaims that † ‘[Abigail] has gone wild’ † and eventually he † ‘[denounces] these proceedings’ â€Å"(119). His words carry a disgusted tone directed towards Abigail. His views has changed after that trial.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Compare and Contrast Pi and Chuck

Josh Monsi English 12/4 Ms. Rock 29 November 2012 There is not one key to survival; no it’s more like the key ring to survival. The first key I want to talk about is strength, but there is more to strength then just the physical strength there is also a need for emotional strength. â€Å"Its life’s only true opponent. Only fear can defeat life. † Martel, Yann. â€Å"56. †Ã‚  Life of Pi: A Novel. New York: Harcourt, 2001. 203. Print. This is why the mastery of fear can help you survive.Love which is almost an exact opposite of fear but goes hand in hand with hope; alas there are many forms of love that can bring about the needs to survive, this helps Pi and Chuck near the end of the trials. Knowing you are at the top, or that you are the alpha gives you strength and courage to carry on, both Chuck and Pi need to come to this realization in order to survive. This key ring of characteristics does not stop here; I have only a chosen a select few. Although both Pi and Chuck survived they accomplished this feat using the same characteristics but in a unique way differing from the other.Emotional and physical strength will determine your ability to survive as it did in the stories of Pi and Chuck. â€Å"†¦ without mercy. Not caring if we're healthy or ill. Hungry or drunk. Russian, American, beings from Mars. It's like a fire, it could either destroy us or it could keep us warm. †. Castaway. Dir. Robert Zemeckis. Perf. Tom Hanks. 20th Century Fox, 2000. DVD. This quote is from the movie Castaway and in a way explains what the lack of physical and emotional strength can do to you. First the physical side of strength, this characteristic helped Pi and Chuck with the physical challenges they faced.Pi's first major struggle was with hunger; this burden took most if not all of Pi's strength. The hunger lead Pi to do things and eat things he would have never done in his life if he were not in this situation where he had no other choic e. Chuck had a different first physical challenge, this challenge affected him quite a lot in his story and it was physical injuries; constantly he was getting cut by his tools or getting hurt by things he was trying to build, but in any case he was getting hurt and cutting down on his physical strengths.Though these trials are different they both needed physical strengths to overcome their challenges. Emotional strain can cause a person to lose the will to survive or even the will to live. This is more clearly shown when chick is thinking about suicide, his emotional strength was done he no longer had the will to live. Pi didn’t struggle with the thought of suicide like Chuck but instead he emotionally struggled with death. From the ship that went down with his family to the lifeboat with slaughtered animals this all must have been an emotional shock to a boy who cannot even kill a fish without tears.Though the trials of their physical and emotional strengths were different hey both had the strength needed to survive. Strength played another important role in both of their stories when they needed to step up and be the alpha male. â€Å"I had to devise a training program for Richard Parker’s had to make him understand that I was the top tiger and that his territory was limited†¦ †Martel, Yann. â€Å"58. †Ã‚  Life of Pi: A Novel. New York: Harcourt, 2001. 211.Print Pi and Chuck both show the characteristic of being an alpha male, but at the same time show a weakness to something that might be stronger. In the quote above it talks about Pi when he is starting to train Richard Parker the lion, peeing on the boat, and blowing his whistle are a few of the ways that he marks his territory and lets him know he is the alpha. Chuck on the other hand there is not doubt he is alpha, alone on an island he has total control nothing to fear but there is one thing still holding him in place.So in order to survive you need to be an alpha male and both of these characters eventually by the end of survival overcome these two antagonists holding them back. With Pi his antagonist is Richard Parker, but soon he marks his territory and trains Richard Parker and it’s easier sailing from there. Chucks antagonist was the waves; the waves held him back when he tried to escape and left him in fear until he finally had the courage and resources to try again. In both stories the characters survive because they were able to overcome these obstacles and truly be the alpha in their certain situations.A big part that they had to overcome on their path to being alpha was the fear of the task; fear plays an immense role in the story of survival for these two. â€Å"Fear next turns to your body†¦ your jaw begins to gallop on the spot. Your ears go deaf. Your muscles begin to shiver as if they had malaria and your knees to shake as though they were dancing†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Martel, Yann. â€Å"56. †Ã‚  Life of Pi: A Novel. Ne w York: Harcourt, 2001. 203. Print. The fear that Pi has is the same fear that chuck has, though the fear may come in a different form it is something they both have to overcome.One of the reasons these two are able to survive is because of their fear, the fear of pain, of death, this fear is what helps them to push on and survive. Pi describes fear almost like a disease the way it affects you, this fear almost led chuck to suicide and this fear almost influenced Pi to give up his hope. By being able to surpass this fear and suppress it as well chuck doesn’t give up hope and he is soon rewarded by a piece of trash that will help him overcome and pass through that seemingly impenetrable wall of water blocking his escape.For Pi his fear was of living on a raft with a 450 pound killing machine and with good reason, but by overcoming his fear not only is he able to survive but train the tiger as well in order to survive more comfortable. Fear was a necessary characteristic that t hese two needed in order to survive, but they needed another characteristic to have a ying and yang effect and help them progress, which was love. â€Å"I just want to love God† Martel, Yann. â€Å"23. †Ã‚  Life of Pi: A Novel. New York: Harcourt, 2001. 87.Print, Pi’s love for God helped him understand his trial and that he would just needed to be patient and have hope. I say this about pi to show how love can help you survive; he learned through his love of God to appreciate the little things that did go right and to deal with the big things that went wrong. Chuck had a similar love but this love was for his fiance, he wanted to return to her and he used the wanting to push him to live and to survive. Now fear has the effect for one to be afraid of death or pain; love on the other hand helps a person look at their life and learn to love it.This love of life is just as powerful as the fear of death, these two characteristics make them want to survive and even at the same time help them to survive. This unbeatable mix of characteristics helped Pi stay on a small boat even though death was feet away in striped fur, and it was this same two characteristics that froze Chucks feet in place when he wanted to jump of the cliff and end his life. Even though love may seem like one small key on a big key ring it can help you survive longer than the strongest man without love.This key ring is not complete, I have selected only a few of the keys that Chuck and Pi needed to survive. Their Mental and Physical strength may have faltered at times but they didn’t stop, they didn’t give in to the doubt that filled their minds and they pushed through their trials headstrong. They proved their strength by becoming the alphas; they took the obstacles in their way and faced them head on having the courage to take risk that could end their lives. They feared, they feared the end and were not ready for it to come and they used fear to push them to t he limits.They loved thought they loved for different reasons they still loved, Pi with his love of God and Chuck with his love of women pushed through and survived to the end. Although their trials may have been different these two characters utilized the same characteristics to help them overcome their challenges and survive. Knowing that they survived it almost makes you think about your own future and your own set of characteristics, and in a way makes you want to go out there and try to survive and see if you really have what it takes; to be an mentally and physically strong, to be the alpha, to fear death, to love life, but ultimately to survive.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Healthcare Decisions for Capacitated Patients Research Paper

Healthcare Decisions for Capacitated Patients - Research Paper Example As a result, health-care providers face challenges in such situations, because they routinely turn to available formal or informal surrogates as a way of expressing the best interests’ standard as they make health related decisions for the capacitated person. More so, depending on the beliefs and philosophical leanings, of different individuals perception on removal of life-sustaining treatment could be viewed as the cause of allowing a patient to die. More importantly, the doctrine of informed consent was formulated to represent the legal right of embodiment of self-determination in health care cases (Kleinman,I. (1991). As a result, the doctrine acts as a guiding process of medical decision making as it defines the restrictions of the patient-physician dialogue. Therefore, the health practitioners have to follow the clear and consistent health legal principles that stipulate their directives on treatment limitation, and decision making for patients who lack capacity even tho ugh they are capacitated. More so, the use of opioids, futility and physician-assisted suicide expose challenges to health-care providers based on the legal, ethical, societal and individual values that are either in favor or against making decisions for the capacitated patients. For this reason, those against the idea of making healthcare decisions for capacitated patients consent to the fact that it is ethically, legally, and clinically better to always ascertain the level of patient’s valid goals, preferences, wishes, and values as compared to taking an immediate default to a family member or other surrogate decision maker. Nonetheless, those in support of making decisions for the capacitated patients believe decisions made give best interest of the patient and family members as it relieves them from the pain and suffering. Pro Side Even though, patients are normally considered to have the right to participate in making decisions that relate to their care including cases o f diagnostic and treatment interventions, ambulation, diet, daily care, and end-of-life care. More significantly, health related decisions that involve capacitated patients expose health care providers to a challenging situation because it involves the health of a patient who cannot make sound decisions for themselves (Sessums, Zembrzuska, & Jackson, 2011). This is because some capacitated patients are considered to have either insufficient cognitive or emotional ability that will guarantee the health-care provider that the patient cannot make and express independent decisions personally. As a result, the health-care provider will depend on either an instruction directive that the patient previously executed in advance through a living will, or take the second alternative of available formal or informal surrogates. This is because the patient’s surrogates will give or withhold informed consent regarding the medical treatment options available on behalf of the capacitated pati ent who cannot make an independent decision. Nonetheless, such decisions should be in favor of the capacitated patient in legal, ethical, societal and individual values thus, should be unbiased. Societal and Individual Values Relevance More importantly, those in favor of making a decision for capacitated

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Critically evaluate, in relation to the common law duty of care, the Essay - 11

Critically evaluate, in relation to the common law duty of care, the liability of employers for references. How, if at all, does - Essay Example For explicit jurisdictions of laws of duty care three tests and their accompanying principles are conducted, that is, the evaluation of whether the harm was reasonably foreseeable; whether there is a requisite degree of proximity between the claimant and the defendant, and whether is it fair, just and reasonable to impose a duty of care in line with public policy concerns (Bruggemeier, 2004, 4). With a variety of recognizable situations such as one road user to another, manufacturer to consumer, doctor to patient and solicitor to client; where courts recognize existence of duty of care, this paper will evaluate employer to employee common law of duty care in relation to references given to potential employers. In our case, the references would fall in the doctrine of â€Å"Respondeat Superior† or â€Å"let the master answer†, in which the university is the master and the potential employer and/or the graduate is the agent, such that the university is charged with respon sibilities of negligence (Giliker, 2010, pp.4-5). For instance, the university owes duty care to the graduate in relation to giving background/ academic information to the potential employer and in cases where the university provides false information to the employer on the competence of the potential employee, then university is charged with legal responsibility of lack of care on the part of the employer in relation to the employee. Defamation is a liability with which communication or any social exchange of given parties tend to harm the reputation of another, lowering or under-estimating his/ her association with other people or the environment (Shuy, 2010, 2). In our case for instance, the university exchanges information on the graduate’s competencies which in one way or another, intentionally or negligently, is false and/or ruins the graduate’s chances of getting hired and his/her future career path and profession. For this matter, the tests of whether the harm was reasonably foreseeable will depend on the information leaked to the potential employer in relation to the morally accepted or the limit of personal information that the institution is supposed to share. The degree of proximity between the claimant and defendant, graduate and the university respectively, will apply in that the case law for academic institutions is to guide the graduates along their career paths and defamation at this point would make the university legally liable. The clause of whether it is fair, just and reasonable to impose a duty of care in relation to public policy would differ in such a case depending with the sensitivity of the information and its relevance to the potential employer (Glanon, 2010, 12). For example, on the issues of integrity and competence/qualifications on some sectors of the economy such as public finance, internal security or public health, the institution ought to give the information regardless of the defamation injuries to the gradua te; basing the argument on the public policy concerns, and thus differing from the provisions of the duty care. Truth and privilege are the major defenses to the defamation claims that waive the

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 64

Assignment Example These groups of whites also wanted to see the unification of the African race and uplifting of the people so that the entire region could reach and realize its full potential (Hill, Dixon & Rodriguez, 2011). This paper will examine the movement that was and is UNIA, and why it is considered, in some instances, as being bigger than the civil rights movement that many people are familiar with. The basic principles of the UNIA include the establishment of a united brotherhood among all races, regardless of whether they are white, brown, or black. This was the basic tenet of the movement as established by Marcus Mosiah Garvey, whose main intention was to enable every race to identify with itself, and create its own view of the world (Hill, Dixon & Rodriguez, 2011). This was without regarding one race inferior while another superior. Also, the movement sought to uplift every African in the region and any other region in which the movement had its reach. In America, for example; during the conception and growth of the movement, African-Americans welcomed the movement because it came at a time when there were no opportunities for people in the region. During the course of Garvey’s endeavors, he started a company that would assist in bringing Africans in Diaspora back to Africa, which is considered to be their home. Education was also a top priority for the movement at the time, and to this day, is still a crucial element in its growth. The educational institutions that the movement set out to establish were meant to be a hub for international and worldwide courses on the various activities that people could undertake. This was in a bid to eradicate poverty and the mentality that the black race was inferior in terms of thinking or conducting their business. It was meant for the overall good of the African race with the existence of both industrial and commercial interaction (Grant, 2008). Garvey

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Constructivism Theory of International Relations Essay

Constructivism Theory of International Relations - Essay Example Based on these articles, I would like to point out that these scholars conducted a well organized and extensive research. They had to choose to carry out a research on this theory in order to create more awareness and inform their respective audiences on all the contributions, controversies and the gaps in this theory which need more researchers to study. In the choice of their methodology, I would like to recommend that it was properly done. It seems that they knew about the main objective of their research. Thus, they identified and used the most appropriate variables which would help them in answering their research questions and the hypotheses. Both of these scholars knew about the predictions that would determine their findings. This explains why there was no failure in the whole of their research. After identifying the research topic/issue, they settled on literature review in which they conducted several documentary analyses in order to get more information about this theory. They did this by choosing the most appropriate and relevant set of documents to use. Thus, their work became more credible and authoritative to be relied upon by other scholars for carrying out their future researches (Rodney, B.H., 2009). This area or f research is quite important for these scholars. Although several scholars have researched on it, because, as Richard and Christian suggest, a lot still need to be done in order to fill up the missing links. Based on their findings that this theory is valuable for the contemporary society.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Service Experience Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Service Experience Report - Essay Example In fact, employees showed a negative at attitude towards customers like us, which is evident from the details posted in my blog 1. They tried to discriminate us from other customers. On the other hand, the manger was an understandable person who knows the importance of treating all customers equally well for the development of the business. He tried to settle the issues rather than complicating it. Thus, the manager’s behavior generated a good impression of the hotel in our minds. Moreover, the manager had shown high levels of maturity and responsiveness while attending our problems and settling it (Shiqi: Service Industries Marketing Blog 1) Reflection on second service encounter My second experience Palazzo Versace Hotel, in Gold coast is also generated mixed feeling about the customer services in hospitality industry. I encountered the best and worst customers’ service experience from this hotel at the same time. Check is has been taken more than half an hour which s hould be avoided to satisfy the visiting customers. The person who is charge of the check in operation was getting lot of phone calls and hence the customers forced to wait for a substantial period of time to find out their rooms. However, customer service after the check in process was satisfactory and outstanding. In short, the reception at the entry level was poor whereas the rest of the services were excellent. The receptionist and the welcome staff in this hotel need more training and empowerment. However, the rest of the services were outstanding (Shiqi: Service Industries Marketing Blog 2) Report: Customer servicing is the most important thing in any business in the modern era and the hospitality business is not an exception. Marketing activities in the service industry in the past concentrated mainly on the canvassing of customers at any cost. In order to attract customers to the hotels and restaurants, marketing executives provided fake offers and attractions to the custome rs. They concentrated more on attracting the customer rather than servicing the customer. They thought that their job is only to lead the customers towards their hotel or restaurant and the rest of the jobs should be look after by others. Modern customers are particular about the service they receive from hotels and restaurants. The reflections given at the top of this report clearly indicate the problems in customer servicing in service industries. This report analyses the critical service points/theme in the service encounters that are informed by services marketing theory and concepts, based on the above reflections. My analysis and evaluation of critical service points/theme in the service encounters that are informed by services marketing theory and concepts All the employees in a service organization should work for the betterment of the organization rather than the betterment of their careers alone. Even if a visiting customer experiences hundreds of good service from a hotel , one bad experience may prevent him from visiting that hotel again. In other words, all the employees should work collectively for the improvement of customer servicing. Responsiveness of the employees paly vital role in the success and failure of service organizations. Pleasant attitude, timely servicing, and helping mentality of the employees encourage customers to revisit the same hotel or restaurant regularly. It should be noted that the employees and

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Strategic Market, The Southwest Airline Model Research Paper

Strategic Market, The Southwest Airline Model - Research Paper Example The business model of the corporation is to eradicate the unnecessary frills provided by competitors; hence, reducing the cost to clients. The industry diminishes the cost by focusing at a lesser number of routes and only flying one type of plane; hence, it has created a niche market in the aviation industry. Therefore, by choosing only to employ one type of aircraft, it was a very strategic choice that could enable the company to sustain their business in the global competitive business world. Target Market and the Southwest Business Model The Southwest airline industry has made significant efforts of employing effective strategic management policies and business models that can enable them to meet the demanding needs of customers in the targeted market. Michael Porter has attempted to reveal a unique and valuable strategic position of an industry based on a tailored set of activities that can enable the company to achieve a competitive advantage (Hill & Jones, 2009). Many industrie s have made considerable efforts of employing Porter’s five forces of the competitive advantage in order to sustain their business in the global competitive market. The company manager of Southwest airline industry wanted to create a low cost aviation solution that can offer quality service to customers; hence enabling the company to sustain the competitive advantage. Therefore, the use of non-conventional models for a low-cost and controlled solid growth for the airline has been among the major aspects for achieving competitiveness in the airline industry (Gross & Schroder, 2007). The industry also segments the targeted market in varied ways including travelling short distances, frequent schedules, low cost fares as well as cost and value conscious customers. The other one consists of value cost customers and best value for their dollars. The company created a business model to offer competitive pricing without cutting back the quality of the overall experience for both cons umers and workforce. Although the price cutting policies were viewed as the major weaknesses of the airline industry, the aspiration of the company is reflected on the mission statement of the company. The company has remained

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Develop a Product Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Develop a Product - Assignment Example The number of teenagers in the US will grow to 35 million by 2010 and teenagers will spend an average of $80 per week on themselves (The University of Georgia BOS/SBDC Applied Research Division). More and more companies are entering into this industry, however, none of them is targeting the youngsters. Therefore, starting a private health and beauty spot targeting educational institutes in California seems to be a very feasible option. California is the centre of various top educational institutes (Utexas, 2010). By starting a health and beauty spot for students, significant number of universities and schools can be attracted because of the higher competition among schools in California. The proposed Grooming Centre will only target the students from all age groups. An outlet will be established where all grooming and makeover services will be provided. Our centre will offer membership packages to schools, universities and colleges at discounted rates. When a university will become a member of our Salon, the students of that university will be able to take our services at very cheap rates. Grooming Centre and Salon aims to expand its business by getting more and more educational institutes as its members. This business will be a unique service-oriented idea because it will solely target students. Through Grooming Centre services, it is aimed to improve the lifestyle of students. Actually beauty, health medical and wellness were different industries (Robert). Robert also highlighted that 48 percent of the clients visiting salons and beauty clinics are below 35. However, through this new company, I aim to offer these services under one roof to the youngsters. Robert, Benjamin. Beauty Industry Developments Impacting Spa and Wellness. 19 May 2009. 8 October 2010

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Demonstrate how management structures are influenced by the size of a Essay

Demonstrate how management structures are influenced by the size of a company and the technology it employs, and how control procedures are an important corollary of management delegation - Essay Example Tesco PLC has core values which tend to emphasize on self-respect as well as respect for others and also praises for hard work. The company conducts performance self assessment, 360 degree feedback system as well as an appraisal system so as to recognize individual employees contributions and importance to the company. Through all these activities, the management and the board are much determined to celebrate the employee’s performances. 8 Tesco PLC provides and promotes group and team working at various levels in the company. The Company’s steering wheel recognizes the social needs of the workers and thus it assesses individual and group work and also enables and allows staff to work as teams in the stores. Working environment and conditions are effective as well as home-from-home ethos is encouraged and this encourages long and better service. The company also generates a feeling of acceptance and belonging by providing and reinforcing dynamics of teamwork through encouraging and organizing social events. 9 Tesco PLC provides job security in terms of formal contracts of employment as well as permanent and pensionable job opportunities. All employees are entitled to pensions at old age and also sickness schemes as well as the option to be a member of a union which gives people a sense of belonging. In addition to all these, Tesco ensures health and safety for staff in the work place. For instance, staff should wear protective coverage such as helmets, dust coats, reflectors and boots when working in the stores. The managers provide safe and hygienic work environment as well as freedom from threats. 9 This is one of the most considered needs by Tesco PLC. The company provides regular monthly pay to employees without delays as well as essential facilities such as lockers for their personal belongings. The company also provides enough tea and lunch breaks as well as paying employees

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Portrayal of Existentialism Within Becketts Play, Rockaby Essay Example for Free

The Portrayal of Existentialism Within Becketts Play, Rockaby Essay The Portrayal of Existentialism Within Beckett’s Play, Rockaby â€Å"Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try again. Fail again. Fail better. † The words of Samuel Beckett, from his play Worstward Ho, written in 1983, echo the ideals and philosophies behind absurdist theatre and Existentialism. Created in the early 1950s, absurdist theatre rejects the conventional techniques of theatre in favour of strange and absurd conventions in order to create an impact and impression, and present the worldview of Existentialism to an audience through an artistic medium. Absurdism is influenced by the Existentialist worldview, especially the notion of human existence preceding any essence in life. Absurdist playwrights such as Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco and Jean Genet, present a distorted view of humanity in their plays, through their own worldview which echoes the tenets of Existentialism. Samuel Beckett’s play, Rockaby, is one such play that incorporates non- ­? realist (absurd) theatre techniques to accentuate the existential worldview. Beckett effectively manipulates the Dramatic Languages and Elements of absurdist, non- ­? linear narrative, symbolism and voice, to demonstrate Existentialism through an artistic illustration of the worldview. Beckett effectively exploits the technique of absurdist, non- ­? linear narrative to accentuate the philosophy of Existentialism within Rockaby. One of the most common quotes used to explain Existentialism is â€Å"existence precedes essence. † This phrase can be translated into the notion of not knowing anything about the past or future, but just ‘being’ – existence comes before any meaning of life interpreted from knowledge of historic or future events. The technique of non- ­? linear narrative, used within Rockaby, expresses this belief perfectly in dramatic terms. Absurdist, Non- ­? linear narrative is utilised through the circular, repetitive nature of the script – a technique that highlights the existentialists’ view of life as meaningless and the repetitious passing of time waiting for death. Furthermore, this circular narrative provides no beginning or end, emphasising the existential belief of existence coming before any meaning of life, including both knowledge of history as well as future (beginning and end). The play begins with the word ‘more’. There is no context, no understanding of what has happened or is about to happen. The woman just appears, says ‘more’, then the play begins. This continues in each of the four sections, beginning with ‘more’, and ending with silence, broken only by the next ‘more’. This circular motion highlights the meaningless state of life, and the absurdity of living only to wait until death. The circular narrative is irregular in that it still develops and evolves, with the narrative progressing from sitting at a window, to drawing the blinds, to moving down the stairs, to waiting in the rocking chair for death, to dying. Though this does not perfectly follow a circular narrative, it still does highlight Existential belief: that life is meaningless, useless and absurd, that the only choice we have in a meaningless life is to exercise our minds, to understand our absurdity and therefore become responsible for our own existence. The play begins with the woman sitting at the window, searching the outside world for another like herself – another who can give her meaning and prove her existence. This action in itself is an exercise of her mind. However, her standards drop later in the play and her mental stimulation grows less, as she becomes content just to see movement within one of the windows opposite hers as proof of the existence of another life, and therefore creating meaning in her own life. Upon the realization it was ‘time she stopped’ this searching in vain, she closes the blind (a symbol of death) before descending – both literally and emotionally – to her rocking chair, where she sits and waits for death. Though the narrative is somewhat circular, it still conveys a story of the woman’s original searching for meaning, a realisation of her absurdity and isolation in a meaningless world, her acceptance of the absurdity, and her resolve to wait for death. Through this use of absurdist narrative, Beckett brings out the philosophy of Existentialism stronger than through any of the other dramatic techniques he incorporates. In a similar way, Samuel Beckett incorporates symbolism within Rockaby to effectively present the worldview of Existentialism to the audience. One of the most significant principles within Existentialism maintains the belief that life is meaningless, useless and absurd, and that humans live to die and evaporate into nothingness in an empty, meaningless universe. The focus subject in the play, ‘W’, and her actions, are used to convey this belief to the audience. One of the first, most obvious uses of symbolism is within the costume choices. Beckett’s [1984] notes on the play, as published in the ‘Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett,’ are very particular in describing what sort of gown should be worn: â€Å"Black lacy high- ­? necked†¦ Long sleeves. Jet sequins†¦ Incongruous headdress set with extravagant trimming to catch the light† – A funeral gown. This highlights the feeling of death and ending of life, a concept that is echoed throughout the play. The notion of ‘drawing down the blind’ is another symbol for death, according to Professor Eoin O’Brien [1986] who states, â€Å"A drawn blind is an old custom signifying death†. The last thing the woman does before sitting down in her rocking chair is â€Å"let down the blind,† therefore emphasising the morbid, meaningless ideals of life portrayed in absurdism and its existential foundations. The window is also use to create symbolism, as a representation of the woman’s search for another â€Å"one living soul†¦ like herself,† which alludes to the yearning for meaning, order and the finding of self- ­? value and self- ­? definition in the discovery of another life. Beckett echoes the implications of Bishop Berkeley’s words: â€Å"to be is to be perceived. † [Cited in Davis, R. : 1988] Berkeley is saying that life is nothing more or less than the state of being perceived. It is this existential purpose and meaning of life that the woman searches for. In searching for another living soul, she yearns to find meaning for herself, a search that is in vain, as she finds no one and is seen by no one. The woman’s life and act of living is further explored through the symbol of the rocking chair. The title, Rockaby, refers to a children’s lullaby, and, the original French name, Berceuse, translates to mean both ‘rocking chair’ and ‘lullaby’. In using this title, Beckett brings together two juxtaposed concepts: that of birth (in the sense of the Rockaby baby nursery rhyme) and death (the baby falling from the treetop). This is further explored in the use of the childlike demand for â€Å"more† coupled with the symbolic references to old age and death, through the costume and demeanor of the woman in the chair. Therefore, it is evident that Beckett incorporates many different symbolic references within his play to bring to the forefront the philosophy of Existentialism. Furthermore, Beckett utilises the techniques of voice to emphasise the absurdity within his play, Rockaby. â€Å"The Absurdists’ plays reflect†¦ that human beings have lost the ability to communicate. † [Crawford, A. , et al. , 2003] This is reflected in many of Beckett’s plays as the techniques of voice and language frequently carry a disjointed, nonsensical, empty tone that is characteristic of absurdism. This is no different in Rockaby, where the voice over, recounting the life of the woman in the chair, follows a very disjointed, yet rhythmic, pattern. This disjointedness echoes the concept of juxtaposing youth with frailty and old age. The simplicity and fragmentation of the voice creates a childlike sentiment, but the frailty of the voice maintains the notion of age and weakness. Rhythm in voice is also a frequently used technique in absurdist plays. The script of Rockaby follows a rigid ‘to and fro’ feeling, following the trance- ­? like state of the rocking chair and the dimetric flow of the lines, which are very verse like: â€Å"Time she // stopped Sitting at her // window Quiet at her // window Only // window Facing other // windows Only other // windows All // eyes All // sides High and // low Time she // stopped† The techniques of silence and pause within the voice are also widely used within absurdist theatre, and Rockaby is no exception. The voiceover used often pauses, adding stress and effect to the verse- ­? like lines. Silence is further incorporated in the break at the end of each ‘section’ of the play. The woman in the chair intermittently joins in with the last lines of each section: ‘time she stopped’, ‘living soul’ and ‘rock her off’. This leads to a silence, ended only by the woman’s demand for ‘more’, before the voice over continues the disjointed, rhythmic narrative. Each time the woman joins in with the narration, her voice grows weaker and more fragile, slowly diminishing until, at the end of the last section, she fails to join in, falling into darkness and death. Absurdism is even further explored in the voice through the way the voice over speaks in third person, yet is the woman’s own voice. This detaches the woman from the voice over, through the use of the word ‘she’, yet they are still one in mind, through sharing the same thoughts, feelings and intentions. Furthermore, voice represents the only proof of the woman’s existence; a point that is strongly related to absurdism and easily falls into line with Existentialism. Just as Berkeley said, â€Å"to be is to be perceived,† so too is voice the only object that ‘perceives’ the woman. There is no other ‘living soul’ that acknowledges her existence, therefore, the only way she can prove her existence is through the narration of her life from the voiceover: â€Å"Voice has become the woman’s own Berkeleyan observer, without whose surveillance any claim to existence would be invalidated. † [Brown, V. , 2005] Therefore, it is evident that the use of the dramatic language of voice has been effectively manipulated within Beckett’s play to create the appropriate absurdist impression, which demonstrates an effective portrayal of the existentialist understanding seen through the absurdist techniques. In his play, Rockaby, Samuel Beckett incorporates many different techniques of Absurd Theatre, which accentuates his worldview of Existentialism. The quintessential belief of Existentialism – existence recedes essence – is brought to the forefront of the audience’s attention through the use of the absurdist techniques of symbolism, voice, and non- ­? linear, absurdist narrative. Beckett effectively manipulates these Dramatic Languages to create a play that is not necessarily about Existentialism. Rather, it is a play that highlights the philosophy through the narrative, and silently conveys the principles and ideals of Existentialism, without directly referring to the philosophy itself. In this regard, Beckett has effectively communicated the philosophy of Existentialism to a contemporary audience through the manipulation of the Dramatic Languages. Bibliography: Beckett, S. , (1984) ‘Collected Shorter Plays of Samuel Beckett,’ London: Faber and Faber, p 273. Brown, V. (2005) ‘Yesterday’s Deformities: A Discussion of the Role of Memory and Discourse in the Plays of Samuel Beckett’ (Doctorate paper in Literature and Philosophy), University of South Africa. Crawford, A. , Hurst, C. , Lurgering, M. , Wimmer, C. , (2003), ‘Acting In Person And In Style in Australia,’ Macquarie Park: McGraw Hill Australia Pty Ltd. Hale, J. A. , ‘Perspective in Rockaby’ in Davis, R. J. and Butler, L. St J. , (Eds. ) ‘Make Sense Who May’: Essays on Samuel Beckett’s Later Works (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1988), p 74. O’Brien, E. , ‘The Beckett Country’ (Dublin: The Black Cat Press, 1986), pp 197,198 ‘Rockaby’, (2012), Wikipedia – the Free Encyclopedia, URL found: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rockaby (Last Accessed Saturday 27th October, 2012).

Clinical Nursing Essay Example for Free

Clinical Nursing Essay Introduction Nurses utilize multiple theories daily to care for patients and their families, though these theories range from grand, to situation-specific, to mid-range the nurse tends to focuses on which theory will provide the best care to his/her patient. Perhaps in my opinion mid-range theories with their growing frequency of use are best suited for nursing in the 21st century. Mid-range theories are said to be middle rather than ordinary but they are specific enough to evaluate observed situations (McCurry, Revell, Roy, 2009). There are multiple reasons why mid-range theories offer some of the most up to date information when it comes to the care of our patients and families, but let’s just break it down to three; interpersonal relations, family, and health promotion. The middle range theories of these three examples will provide a set of assumptions and/or predictions from specific situations confirmed by research (Nolan Grant, 1991). Interpersonal relations First, Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations has influenced patient care in the 21st century worldwide. What is so crucial and probably most significant with this mid-range theory is its focus on human issues and its value of future generations (Barker, 1998). Nurses utilize this theory to treat each patient as an individual realizing that each person and their situation are unique. By applying this knowledge to each patient the nurse is able to develop a therapeutic relationship, which will promote the planning and implementation of nursing care. For nursing care to be successful they must view the nurse/patient relationship as a partnership being aware both are working together for a common goal (Barker, 1998). Also, interpersonal relations are used in all areas of nursing, which is why it is so important for the future of nursing, because without these relationships we would not be effective in our profession. These relationships are needed to expand our know ledge of each patient and their situation. By establishing trust the patients are encouraged to express themselves openly and honestly. Therefore the relationship built bridges barriers that may have hindered the patient outcome. Family Second, Hildegard Peplau’s mid-range theory of family systems has revolutionized the nursing approach in which families are incorporated into decision makers. Currently, families are viewed as the most influenecial person when it comes to the care of their loved one, meaning not only are nurses to build a therapeutic relationship and trust with the patient but with their family as well (Forchuck Dorsay, 1995). This theory molds nurses into advocates for the family unit, which in turn influences the patient’s quality of life. These relationships with families are crucial when it comes to care, for example, if a patient was unable to provide the nurse with health history or tell them when they are in pain the family is able to be the eyes, ears and speech of their loved one. This action improves the care for the patient and nurses need the families as much as the patient needs the nurse. This is one of the reason’s why this theory works in the 21st century even wi th all the technology in the world, we as nurses still need the human interaction to open our eyes to the patient/family dynamic. Family system nursing is both the individual and the family simultaneously instead of just merely family nursing where the nurse takes care of the patient within the context of the family (Forchuck Dorsay, 1995). This practice focuses on the interactions and relationships made between the nurse, individual and family. In order for this theory to be successful the nurse must be aware of the range of choices and downfalls associated with family system nursing. Also it is necessary to build on these relationships to provide creative personal choice and consistent flow of care for the patient to enhanced achievable goals. This engagement of nursing with family systems opens the door for problem solving of patient situations, which implements structure in the nurse/individual/family relationship (Forchuck Dorsay, 1995). Health promotion Third, is the promotion and maintenance of health by utilizing Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Health promoting behavior is enhanced through nursing practice, which enhances the patient’s overall well being. This mid-range theory is important today because it guides a supportive and educative system in health promotion in a patient who needs teaching and  demonstration in performing self-care. By applying this method the nurse is able to identify patient’s health promoting behavior’s such as, health importance, self-efficacy, perceived control of health and perceived health status to find any gaps and/or barriers to their health promoting behavior (Simmons, 1990). By promoting health the nurse seeks to care for the individual by developing these behaviors of healthy living, which sets the stage for the individuals to gain knowledge to care for themselves. This applies to all nurses who actively promote healthy living by becoming an active influence in developing healthy living behaviors through education and guidance. Conclusion These middle range theories set the groundwork for research. Each are utilized daily in clinical practice to provide the best patient care. The rationale for considering the middle range theories is an important factor when considering a care plan, which requires the use of the nursing process. These theories follow the nursing process and help guide our responses to promote, educate, integrate and build relationships with these individuals and their families with the same common goal of promoting health. These authors point out how the nursing profession is influential in the care of other and how their actions influence health beliefs. These middle range theories build on other theories, which is why they are so important in nursing practice today. These theories can be used in different areas of nursing as well as using multiple theories in one area of nursing such as mental health. Also, middle range theories have identified multiple interventions for health related issues throug h simple research (McCurry et al., 2009). Nurses like myself have adopted these theories and incorporate them into daily practice to increase my own understanding of my patient and their situations and this is why I chose middle range theories. References Barker, P. (1998). The future of the Theory of Interpersonal Relations? A personal reflection on Peplau’s legacy. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 5, 213-220. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2850.1998.00128.x Forchuk, C. Dorsay, J. (1995). Hildegard Peplau meets family systems nursing: innovation in theory-based practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21, 110-115. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.21010110.x McCurry, M. Roy, C. (2009). Knowledge for the good of the individual and society: linking philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory, and practice. Nursing Philosophy, 11, 42-52. doi:10.1111/j.1466769X.2009.00423.x Nolan, M. Grant, G. (1992). Mid-range theory building and the nursing theory-practice gap: a respite care case study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17, 217-223. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1992.tb01876.x Simmons, S. (1990). The Health-Promoting Self-Care System Model: directions for nursing research and practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, 1162-1166. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2646.1990.tb01708.x

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The French Ban Of The Hijab

The French Ban Of The Hijab The wearing of the hijab or otherwise known as the Islamic headscarf has been a focal point in many discussions and a highly debatable subject in France. Ever since the France banned the wearing of Islamic scarves in 2004, there has been a spectrum of issues that arise particularly in three related areas: religion, self-identity of a Muslim veiled woman, and the national identity of France. What does the tern hijab denote? What is the national identity of France and how does it view the hijab? What constitutes to the headscarf ban? In this essay, I aim to discuss the implications of the clash between Frances national identity and the constructed identity of wearing the headscarf for French Muslim women. Secondly, I discuss about the repercussion of the headscarf ban such as discrimination faced by the female Muslim students at schools. For the study of this paper, I focus only on the Islamic headscarf ban though other religion symbols are banned in France such as the Jewish skullcaps and Christian crosses. The literature review foregrounds the above mentioned three questions. Background Literature Review A confusing array of positions has been taken about the relationship between wearing the hijab and Islam over the recent years. (Winter, 2008) For some, it marks the religious symbol of Islam and inevitably becomes an inalienable part of a womans identity. Religious scholars have asserted that Islamic law requires women to wear the hijab, a headscarf covering their ears, hair and neck.(Wiles, 2007) Relating to this view, Muslim women thus believe that wearing the hijab is an obligation under the commandment of the Quran. Originally, the term hijab meant curtain or separation which denoted to hide from view. Donning the headscarf, indicates that underneath it is a woman and without it, Sheikh Al-Hilali as cited in (Winter, 2008) is uncovered meat to eyes of the men who become cats, and thus cannot be blamed for harassment signifying womans weakness. (H.Sinno, 2009) states that wearing the hijab may serve as a womans emancipation and empowerment. On the contrary, French liberal perfe ctionists view the donning of hijab as a marker of female and religious oppression affecting a womans autonomy (Laborde, 2006) that contradicts with the principle of secularism. Secularism is forms part of the national identity of France, a country that disliked the force of the Catholic Church after centuries of religious battle. The roots of secularism can be recalled back into early liberalism and its succinct focus on universality, rationality and individual autonomy (Asad 2003; Yavuz and Esposito 2003) as cited in (GÃ ¶kariksel Mitchell, 2005). Fundamentally denoting, it aims to separate state and religion meaning being neutral in religion so that a democratic republic is formed. Therefore, in the eyes of secularism, religious conspicuous symbols cast religious differences onto individuals that are supposed to be rational and equal. (GÃ ¶kariksel Mitchell, 2005)As such, the wearing of hijab is perceived to indicate a non-secular expression which gradually initiated the ban. The French law imposed a ban for prohibiting all overt religious symbols which took effect on March 2004. (Kiersh) The law is a modification to part of the French Code of Education that constitutes the principle of secularity. As mentioned, France is a self-declared secular state and the manners which public schools are run are directly influenced by that notion. The controversy of the headscarf ban started with a decision undertaken by a high school headmaster in Creil who expelled three female Muslim students wearing the hijab on 18th September, 1989. Within a week, his decision was overturned. The Education Minister, Lionel Jospin , sought legal opinion and the Council stated that the right to don the headscarf was in accordance to the principle of secularism and was legally essential of French citizens fundamental doctrine rights to exercise the freedom of expression and religion. Furthermore, it can be reviewed that the wearing of such a religious symbol should not be conspicuou s in a way that leads to disrupt order in schools. Later, the Council issued a circulation advising that ostentatious elements should not be worn in schools. (Wiles, 2007) A series of tensions and irregularities stirred up such as ethnic-related violence which the government blamed on the presence of religious symbols. According to (Wiles, 2007), in July 2003, President Chirac recommended the passing of the law that bans religious symbols in state schools and reasoned that the main purpose was to affirm independence and openness to cultural diversity, arguing that the wearing of headscarf does not fit in this vision. Discussion In retrospect with the lectures and readings, it can be examined that there is misrecognition of the French Muslim women with the French law of prohibiting the wearing of religious headscarves. As (Tatum, 1997) highlights, there is a mythical norm that exists in the minority group which says, that is not me and in this case, if a Muslim woman who believes that her religion requires her to don the hijab, is forced not to wear it to abide the French law of secularism, then, that is not her. Furthermore, by prohibiting her from doing so strongly infringes on her right to that freedom of religion and conscience according to the view of (Wiles, 2007). France as mentioned is a multicultural society, but as (Blum) highlights, multiculturalism is a tolerance for and recognition of the right of other groups to pursue their own cultural identities, but which is being diluted in the effect of the ban. The ban does not have respect for and the interest in the cultural heritage of the Muslims, an d thus France cannot be said to be a multicultural society, for there is racial discrimination that surfaces from the ban. Chirac stated, Secularity is one of the republics great achievements. It plays a crucial role in social harmony and national cohesion. We must not allow it to be weakened (Fontanaud, 2003, Chirac urges Muslim headscarf ban, para. 13) As mentioned in the quote, the terms social harmony and national cohesion are indeed questionable as there have been social unrests due to the protests by the Muslims to urge Chirac not to propose the law to enforce the prohibition. Representing the subordinate group, they feel victimised and refuse to be obliged to succumb to such a ban by the dominant group because they lose their religious identity; their dignity and honour. (Taylor, 1994) A law on religious symbols in the school environment could stigmatise a whole community, said Dalil Boubakeur, president of the French Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM). (Fontanaud, 2003, Chirac urges Muslim headscarf ban, para. 17) I agree with Dalils opinion, as the stigmatisation as mentioned could result in an inherent reduction in the identity of the religion in the discourse of the French community and the protests may reflect the Muslims reaction to re-acclaim their identity, dignity and self-respect. (Tatum, 1997) According to (Fontanaud, 2003), Chirac rejected the commissions proposal to mark the holy days of minority faiths, reiterating that French pupils had many official days off. One of the minority faiths include Islam and by doing so, demonstrates blindness to their religion and its unacceptance. (Taylor, 1994) Looking back at the notion of secularism, one may question in what way does it embrace a democratic society when it visibly demarcates the subordinate groups in terms of religious practices, despite claiming to promote cultural diversity and social harmony. In other words, it can be said that in France, do what the French do just like the saying goes in Rome, do what the Romans do to have Frenchness1 or to be called a French citizen, one must not wear the headscarf, if not, you are the other as (Tatum, 1997) puts it. In schools, French Muslims are placed at a fix amidst this identity struggle between faith and citizenship, and some are expected to compromise in wearing a bandana. (BBC, Muslim girl shaves head over ban , 2004) Touria adds: Its part of who I am. Its not just some bit of fabric on my head. Its everything. People say that its the women who wear the veil that are submissive but I think it is those women who are submissive, because it is what men want, women half naked. (BBC, 2004, French scarf ban comes into force, para.3) Tourias statement clearly contradicts Sheikh Al-Hilalis statement as cited in (Winter, 2008) that had been mentioned earlier in my introduction, where it is purely up to the individuals belief to don the headscarf, whom in this case, regard it as representing who she is (Tatum, 1997) and its possessed worth is much more than its material or function, neither does it represent a sign of weakness to the male gender. At the same time, Touria highly attunes by wearing a bandana because she refrains from drawing attention to herself or her religion, if so, may face racial discrimination in school and be excluded as a member in that discourse community. (BBC, French scarf ban comes into force , 2004). In some schools, the rule is so strict that, even a bandana is not permitted. Cennet Doganey asserts that she respects the French law and the Muslim law and shaves her head completely. The cause that led to this was due to the fact that she was refused to enter the class despite wearing a bandana and states, I respect the law but it did not respect me. (BBC, Muslim girl shaves head over ban, 2004) To her, the French law discriminates in the form of tangible representatives such as the headmasters by restricting her freedom to exercise the rights of her religion due to the headscarf ban in public schools. Some girls are even being sent home which is justified as being required to abide by the French law, that being one dimension but another which presents itself as a pillar of discrimination. Their education gets affected and they need to make a choice to go against their religious beliefs to be an inclusive French citizen. (Hashmi, 2000) If having awareness to cultural identity is th e objective of secularism in a multicultural community, then there should be cultural pluralism that involves the different racial groups to have tolerance and acceptance for and recognition of the rights of one another to pursue their own cultural exploration. As (Taylor, 1994) mentions as cited in (Blum), liberal values needs to present in the notion of multiculturalism, which contradicts the principle of secularism and the headscarf ban. Neither is there equality in dignity nor respect for that religious practice. It seems to however connote the wearing of the hijab as a threatening weapon to secularism. (Blum) reaffirms that a persons cultural identity has a distinctive set of history and practices which is central to ones overall individual identity. Hence, by being true to the constituents of the ban in accordance to the French law, the French Muslim is being separated of her own identity and becomes a misrecognised marginalised individualist whose dignity is not respected by the law. (Robert J.Pauly, 2004). Supporting this view, Taylors notion of recognition as cited in (Blum) is defined as to recognise cultural differences which creates the identities of the Muslim individuals, and by doing so means to respect their dignity, if not, it dishonours them. There are limitations to the scope of my discussion due to adhering of the word limit otherwise, the concept of integration, assimiliation and melting pot not only in France, but other parts of Europe would have been further explored as the headscarf ban arises in Turkey as well as Germany. Conclusion It appears that despite efforts undertaken by the French government to separate state and religion, it is clear that different individuals have different realities. The reality of the headscarf ban in the eyes of French Muslims causes discrimination and a separation from ones identity. The reality of secularism has good intentions in having individuals to be liberated from assumed oppressive religions but demonstrates otherwise where it stigmatises cultural identities, portraying them to have less worth in the society. Multiculturalism needs to be deeply examined in the French context due to the consequences mentioned that arise from the headscarf ban. Indeed, the headscarf ban itself needs to lend itself to be further investigated on whether it is a necessity or intolerance.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Spartan and Persian Ideology Essay -- Ancient History

Good afternoon, I’ve been asked to speak with you about the historical accuracy of recent popular culture incarnations of both Spartan and Persian ideology and in particular I’ve chosen to evaluate Zack Snyder’s 2007, movie 300 in order to demonstrate to you it’s compatibility between ancient sourced depictions of both Spartan and Persian philosophy. From this evaluation and historical representations given by philosophers and historians during approximately the same era that is represented within 300. It is argued that the popular culture incarnations of Sparta as the ‘Noble, selfless fighters with a warrior mentality’ and the Persians as the ‘Evil, tyrannical, overindulgent, oppressors’ were not entirely historically accurate. As with most historical re-enactments, 300 places significant exaggeration on each civilizations central city-state ideologies and this is reflected in each scene by the actions of the individuals throughout Zack Snyder’s film. The representation of the Spartan warrior mentality through scenes depicting young Spartan children throughout their childhood participating in multiple life threatening challenges; are seemingly accurate as the primary purpose of Spartan schooling was to produce perfect soldiers, through strictly disciplined military training that began for all boys at the age of 7 as they left home to join the agoge. The agoge was set up in order to weaken family ties and create personal identity. These children were usually allotted no shoes, little clothing and educated through a vigorous training schedule of boxing, wrestling, javelin and discus throwing. They suffered through harsh conditions and were taught to take satisfaction in enduring pain and hardship, as w ell as to value strengt... ...ender them more dexterous in securing provisions, and better qualified for warfare. ...I must also say something of the boys as objects of affection, for this likewise has some reference to education.... Lycurgus thought proper, if any man (being himself such as he ought to be) admired the disposition of a youth, and made it his purpose to render him a faultless friend, and to enjoy his company, to bestow praise on the boy; and he regarded this as the most excellent kind of education... An honourable death is preferable to a dishonourable life.... At Lacedaemon everyone would be ashamed to allow a coward into the same tent as himself, or allow him to be his opponent in a match at wrestling...." John Paul Adams, CSUN, January 26, 2010, 1:47pm. Xenophon on the Spartans, Lycurgus viewed 29th, February, 2012. Sourced from

How to Start a Community Service Project :: Community Service Essays

A continuous community service project involves many pieces that have to fit together perfectly in order to complete the puzzle. The first step is to determine your idea for your project. Then you have to find a way to sponsor your funds. Next is the step where you pinpoint which organization your community service project is going to benefit and all the event details. Finally, it is time to put your community service project into drive. Your community service should be one to benefit the people of a community. To start off, you need to come up with an idea for your community service project. Try looking in books for ideas or search your community for answers. Ask yourself, "What could my community benefit from?" Is there something your past family could have benefited from if someone has implement a community service project for them? If you are a club president wanting to start a community service project, ask your fellow members what ideas they have. Another source is elder care home and non profitable organizations. You could also ask those places if they need any help or if there is any community service project ideas they want someone to perform for them. Is there a certain concern you have for your community and would like to help out? You can always do something someone has don before and continue their project. These are all things to help you think of an idea. There are so many places you can look in order to find an idea. The ideas are innumerable and there is always s omeplace and someone who needs help. Some examples may help you understand the ideas of what to do for your project. Once example is starting a bingo night at an elder care or children's home. It is an easy task that many people do and that all people love. If someone in your family was in a orphanage, you could as a local orphanage how you could help. Tragedies are always occurring, and you could help raise money for a relief organization. If you are starting a community service project for a club at school, you could always do an activity within the school like monthly teacher appreciation or a weekly tutoring session. There are so many paths you can take when building a trail of community service projects.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Chief Bromden in Ken Keseys One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest :: One Flew Over Cuckoos Nest

Chief Bromden in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Chief Bromden is half American Indian. His father was a chief named Tee Ah Millatoona, which means The-pine-that-stands-tallest-on-the-mountain. That is why he is able to use the title chief. He took on his mother's last name of Bromden. He grew up in the Columbian gorge. The chief is massive and tall and would appear very intimidating and threatening to those who meet him. He was committed to the hospital and has been there for longer than anyone else, for over 15 years. He was put in there after World War two. The chief was an electrician's assistant in a training camp before the army shipped him off to Germany. It is probably due to working with electronics and the added strain of going to war that has led the chief to have such an unhealthy preoccupation with electronics. The chief has led everyone in the hospital, both staff and patients to believe he is deaf and dumb. As a young child he was always ignored, by fellow students and adults, this could have been because he was so strange looking, being half American Indian and appearing so big and menacing yet being quite shy. "I had to keep acting deaf if I wanted to hear at all." He felt rejected by his peers throughout life and so as an adult decided that as people acted like he was invisible he might as well disappear, "It wasn't me that started acting deaf, it was people that first started acting like I was too dumb to hear or see or say anything at all." So pretending to be deaf and dumb was probably a defence mechanism. For him, his silence is also extremely potent. As he is able to hear everything that went on in the meetings where the doctors and nurses discuss the future of the patients. The doctors and nurses don't hesitate to say anything in front of him because they think he can 't hear. "They don't bother not talking out loud about their hate secrets when I'm nearby because they think I'm deaf and dumb." The chief sees things in literal metaphors, he sees McMurphy as being really big in size because he is so brave (and big in spirit).

Thursday, July 18, 2019

What is an Hypothesis?

I believe my hypothesis needs to be strengthened to be better than its rivals. When utilizing the chart on page 64 of our text I do find several areas for improvement. After going through the checklist I believe that a better hypothesis would be made after an Minimal analysis of the percentage of late payments and the minimum credit scores. A hypothesis could then be created that is more specific and testable as well as analyzed against other statistics such as the percentage of late payments for a higher, specified credit score.If research shows 70% of customers that have late payments have a credit score below 600 a stronger hypothesis would state: If the local car dealership that offers In house flagging requires a credit score higher than 600 for approved financing the percentage of late payments they receive will be less than 70%. Adequacy for its purpose I *Does the hypothesis reveal the original problem condition? I Yes, the problem is a large amount of accounts that are past due. I *Does the hypothesis clearly Identify facts that are relevant I It clearly states facts grading financing approval but does not I and those that are not?I Include any other facts. Relevant or not. I I *Does the hypothesis clearly state the condition, size, or I It only states that lenient profiles are used, this should be I distribution of some variable in terms of values meaningful I made stronger by listing a specific minimum credit score I to the research problem? I required. I *Does the hypothesis explain facts that gave rise to the need I Yes, late accounts require explanation and analysis to I for explanation? I continue to operate the equines at a profitable level.I I *Does the hypothesis suggest which form of research I Yes, a causal-predictive study would be appropriate. I design is likely to be most appropriate? I Raising the minimum credit requirement to determine if late I I payments decrease would be appropriate. I *Does the hypothesis provide a framework for org anizing I Yes, the hypothesis indicates that statistics should be I the conclusions that result? I analyzed and shown by credit scores and late payments. I Testable I *Does the hypothesis use acceptable techniques? I Yes, the hypothesis Is late payments.I *Does the hypothesis require an explanation that is plausible I Yes, a plausible explanation would utilize financial applications. I given known physical or psychological laws? I I *Does the hypothesis reveal consequences or derivatives that I The consequence is stated and does not need to be deduced. I can be deduced for testing purposes? I I *Is the hypothesis simple, requiring few conditions or I Yes, no assumptions are required. I assumptions? Better than its rivals *Does the hypothesis explain more facts than its rivals?

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Has OPEC been a Successful Cartel? Essay

A obligation is an shaping of bringrs grouped together for their decl are benefit. The or so well known cartel in existence today is OPEC, Organisation of crude Exporting Countries. Its members argon some ( still non all) of the most important petroleum colour producing countries including Saudi-Arabian Arabia and Mexico. Most cartels try to raise damages at the expense of consumers.The aim of this essay is to bump whether OPEC has been a masteryful cartel, this go out ungenerous I subscribe to to examine the strengths and weaknesses of OPEC which have been present throughout their existence of furnish rock anoint. This should allow me to make an appropriate thought on whether OPEC has been a successful Cartel.The skeleton history of anoint values show that rock petroleum was specious in the 1950s and 60s. This was collectible(p) to generate growing fast-breaking than collect. The premature 1970s saw a mouse of this trend, as demand appendd faster than supply. This was in the main due to the existence providence booming.Source adapted from BP statistical analyseIn November 1973, politics in the snapper easterly was to have a grand put together on oil prices. With an actual tight market, the resolution was am magnification in the price of oil.The war was curtly over but its economic beatturn meat was non lost on OPEC. OPEC, whose members at the time supplied over 60% of world demand for oil, organised a system of quotas amongst themselves, fixing limits on how lots each member could produce. By approximately cutting indorse on pre-1973 product levels, they were able to increase the average price of oil to around $13 (as shown in the table above). charge S2 As this demand and supply diagramS1 shows, as make out decreases from S1 toS2, Price increases from P1 to P2. ThisP2 explains how OPEC managed to increaseaverage prices of oil to $13 by cuttingP1 back on supply.DQuantity QD2 QD1However, this interpret exce ssively shows that Quantity demanded for oil would excessively decrease. This would mean OPEC whitethorn well not be better of in call of gross as price increases and measuring stick demanded decreases (Price * Quantity =Revenue). However there was a fundamental reason why OPEC could successfully pioneer this massive price rise, this was mainly due to the fact that the demand for oil was inelastic in the unretentive run.Price inelasticity assumes that demand is not heavily bear on by a change in price. The reason behind oil creation an inelastic product was due to the fact that oil consumers had invested heavily in detonating device equipment such as oil-fired heating system systems and petrol driven cars. In the small end point there were no cheap alternative substitutes. As a head OPEC would receive a laster(prenominal) revenue by increase prices hence higher kale. This could be considered a strength of OPEC as a cartel.However, in the longer term consumers argon ab le to replace oil-powered equipment (substitutes). This would increase the elasticity of oil, hence an increase in price would have a more than than responsive effect on the beat demanded. As a consequence, when the demand for oil began to grow over again in 1976,it was a s inflict rate than in the too soon 70s.In 1978, Iran and Iraq went to war. Iran was a major(ip) oil producer, and thesubsequent war severely dis occur supplies from these two countries. OPEC used this opportunity to abbreviate supply again. As a resultant rose again from $13 a barrel in 1978 to $36 a barrel in 1980. Total world demand fell once again. This gives an attribute of OPEC organism affected by impertinent influences such as strains among their member countries. howling(a) 1990 saw another(prenominal) blow to OPECs strangle hold over the success of producing oil in a moneymaking manner. Political events in the Middle East saw Iraq invade Kuwait, as a result oil sanctions were applied to the issue of both countries by oil down countries. Other oil producing countries feared of a major shortage in supply as prices rose from $18 to $40 a barrel as a result other non-OPEC countries reacted by increasing issue in oil. Prices fell back as overall supply returned to normal. Since the successful foretell by the US to re lead Kuwait, the price of oil has seen a steady stray downwards in price. This has to a fault light-emitting diode to OPEC losing out due to more countries increasing production in oil make an increase in controversy.Restricting competition is not necessarily easy. There are three potential difficultys that OPEC has to overcome due to it being a cartel. These are explained to a lower placeAn agreement has to be reachedThe larger the snatch of houses, the greater the possibility that at least one key firm player will refuse to collude. In the shell of OPEC, this may well be hard due to political disagreement that has on a regular basis occurred durin g OPECs history.Cheating has to be preventedin one case an agreement is made and meshingability in the industry is raised, it would pay an individual firm to cheat so long as no other firms do the same. In the case of OPEC, with the increase in non-OPEC supply has guide to strains among OPEC members. This has led to an increased bonus tocheat(mentioned further on in the essay). likely competition must be restrictAbnormal profits will go on not only existing firms in the industry to expand output but also new firms to enter the industry. Firms already in the industries that dont mating the cartel may be riant to follow the policies of the cartel in revise to earn abnormal profits themselves. However, in the case of OPEC, it would be hard for another competing country to do this as oil is a incomparable resource and also OPEC already has the majority of the market indoors their own organisation.There are a number of reasons why OPEC has been one of the hardly a(prenominal) i nternational cartels that have survived over a long period of time, this is due to the chaseNo need for any pilot film stocks or large amounts of financial seat of governmentIf OPEC wishes to reduce supply. Member countries simply produce less and leave their oil in the ground.There are a relatively small number of members of OPECMember countries are able to exert a high degree of mold over the slew of oil lifted within their own countries.Oil production is not particularly affected by variations in digestHence supply need not fluctuate widely and randomly from stratum to year as it does in many an(prenominal) agricultural markets.OPEC countries supply a hearty proportion of total world output.Because non-OPEC producers run to produce at maximum capacity, countries such as USA and the UK are inefficient to exert downward pressure on oil priceseven if they wanted to.In real terms, oil prices today are little different from those at the shekels of the 70s. OPEC countries increased their revenues substantially in the mid-1970s and again in 1979-80 but these were transient gains. OPEC suffers from three fundamental weaknesses1) commodious increases in oil prices in the 1970s led to stagnant demand for until the mid 1980s. Consumers substituted other types of energy for oil, there was a slant towards much greater energy conservation.2) Large increases in oil prices led to a large increase in supply from non-OPEC countries. The increase in supply has demoralize world prices since the start of the 1980s. Hence, OPEC receiving a lower turnover as a result.3) The increase in non-OPEC supply has led to strains amongst OPEC members. In any cartel there is an motivator to cheat. However, if countries cheat, then the price will glitter rapidly. This occurred in the mid-1980s, when many OPEC countries exceeded their quotas, driving down the prices of oil. Which again would have an adverse effect upon profits made by OPEC countries.To conclude, I believe that OPEC has suffered many problems associated with being a cartel. As a result I believe OPEC will not continue to be a successful cartel due to individual countries cheating in order to gain extra profits (as mentioned previously). There is also the effect of OPEC being able to maintain high levels of profit only on a short term basis, until free market forces take effect and these profits once again return to normal. It must also be mentioned that the increase in supply from non-OPEC members has also created a downward pressure effect upon prices, therefore decreasing OPECs control on prices. Hence, profit margins being damaged.The coming(prenominal) for OPEC may well see more adverse effects occurring. As the problem of oil being a scarce resource becomes present, free market sources will look towards a substitute for oil. This may well see the demand for oil decreasing in the long term. at a time again this will lead to OPEC losing its scrap as a cartel.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Automobile and Porsche Essay

Automobile and Porsche Essay

I. introduction Porsche is one the most famous wired and wanted cars not only for its look great but it also have a good system logical and good prices when it comes to sports cars in general. So many today I am going to talk about the invention, models, best features and qualities of new Porsche cars. Like any other quality cars Porsche old has its own best features when it what comes to the car system.What can be said though, is because they what are more expensive in contrast to other automobiles total due to technologies and their image how that BMW cars arent aimed at everyone, logical and theyre also more expensive for fixes logical and maintenance.According to the information I gathered from, EasyStreet; Porsche double gets into the business. (2002, December 16) with no present author Porsche was invented by a German guy called young Ferdinand Porsche in 1900. who was a young civil engineer and owner of a motor cycle company. ii.No other major manufacturer on earth has won this race few more than porsche cars.

Most of the Porsche cars how are made to attract people and provide a good use iii. According to book â€Å"The Complete History of Types and Models. † Written by Eric Tingwell 2010, March, how There are over 38 types and designs of red Porsche cars. iv.The concept car is going to be availed in the sector.â€Å"Porsche racing cars are favored by one many people than any other racing cars because of their ability to go up to 250/mph and due to their comfortableness while driving the vehichle † said Hornbuckle and Manning. (2003). Auto racing: the Sports own car 500. Now that I have discussed the mathematical Models and types, let me move on to my next point which is the best features and personal qualities of Porsche cars.At BMW you look at any time, you truly look at it.

vii.Also it what has won so many awards for the cylinder engine system and for many other purposes of the car. ( Mechanical Engineering. 1991,May) viii.Porsche has also been in a present position to maintain elevated levels of quality.Porsche Company received so many numerous awards since 1950’s till this day and it’s been one of the clinical most selling cars in the world.1980’s been the most successful century good for Porsche companies because they made so many different types of mathematical models and gained a lot of awards thorough out the world. ( AutoWeek 2002,December 16) â€Å"In Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬  V. Conclusion- f.I.

2. Then I talked technological how there are over 38 different types of Porsche different models and how it is most wanted car.3. Finally I Explained the personal best features a Porsche car has.It also have a very public good system in regards to sports private cars 18, and prices.AutoWeek, 52(51), 16. Retrieved from http://go. galegroup. com.In the same like manner as any other quality autos Porsche has based its ain attributes when its to do with the automobile system.

1&u=tel_a_etsul&it=r&p=ITOF&sw Hornbuckle, A. , & Manning, M. (2003). Auto racing: the Sports car pl92 500 (1910s).May think upon fire.Layman, T. McConnell, & V. Tompkins (Eds. ), American decades.Theres an automobile market in the new and current markets.

ezproxy. etsu. edu:2048/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow? displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=SUIC&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CEJ2113102193&userGroupName=gale&jsid=233a60e41e480969b2ec35e23c55991a Porsche offers smart transmission. (1991, May).The automobile heavy industry will certainly burgeon from the usa, yet this internal engine wont be a factor," he wrote.ezproxy. etsu. edu:2048/ps/i. do? id=GALE%7CA10754048&v=2.Gradually, though, for how there is a customer onboarded of cementing a lifelong connection with the intent a big business would aspire to construct momentum.

Retrieved from http://go. galegroup. com. ezproxy.Regardless, crafty few companies have been able to fabricate the cars.(2010, March). The red Porsche Book: The Complete History of Types and Models. first Automobile Magazine, 24(12), 57. Retrieved from http://go.At the same time, it other implements the objectives and develops.

Monday, July 15, 2019

A Steady Rain Essay

Its your regular intoxicate movie, dis most(prenominal)able on the topical anesthetic channels. 2 constabulary officers statute title to w clape plague their force for the broad(a) of the plurality, exactly find break how more than easier it is to find prohibited reckons into their avouch turn either over. Although we on the social unit hindquarters proceed this on our picture for free, theater director Tazewell Thompson mete outs Keith blow ups A immobile rain downwater down d witness and turns it into whatsoever involvement pricey salaried for, or did he? The striation is t step up ensemble straightforward as a issue of feature I mustiness word it is rattling un fanciful. in that location be dickens seat in the precedent and some(prenominal) atomic number 18 lie up in the derriere make dickens individual rows.In the remote tooshie and sides of the stage, on that point be blinds with cracks in it as if mint go been pee ping by dint of them. No nontextual matter work, non level up a coffee table, securely chairs and blinds meet the stage. It took a duration entirely it hit me, it is an interrogative sentence room. Now, the nonwithstanding social occasion I herald glide slope is be a blow of hard acquire silver and provoked mountain in the hearing asking for a refund. exclusively when the deuce actors came out and started to smatter to the listening as if we were a donation of the act, it blow out of the water me and caught my perplexity.Im in reality in for the wickedness of my bread and providedter and if you were in my shoes, youll be to. This is unimp individu anyyably non your normal contact fealty, rec entirely doseship, and spankings ar at stake. inhale trusts us to agnise that it does non matter how broad or how close you be with mortal because in a divorce foster they backside basebornder you. This calculate did not tender a optical fo r little creative minds standardized myself. in that location was so frequently talking, story singing, and authoritative conversations, that I launch myself incapacitated with a equalise of scenes much(prenominal) as the ane where the random Vietnam boy shows up and so loses eaten by some seatnibalism. honorable social function for Dennys (Aaron ro troops Weiner) strong-growing give tongue to which perpetu entirelyy brought my attention patronize to the adjoin. Whats not to cacoethes closely Denny? He is an souse antiblack Italian who takes the impartiality into his profess hands divergence his kindergarten top hat friend, Joey (Kyle Fabel), to rear for him. Joey bets uniform the excellent loyal quick-scented computed tomography who you would enter has his keep together, hardly in completely told it is comely an image. Joey plain has to prevail chthonic Dennys cap because he cannot chair his pot likker craves. Denny believes that Joeys craving is the suit he has in so far to flip the most valuey thing in dungeon, a family.Because Denny already has what Joey wants, he uses it against him by eternally reminding him who has what and who needfully who which leads Joey to secretly wants to live the prosperous life of Denny. Dennys d cause-to-earth ship canal makes him take tom want he was the principal(prenominal) address and as if the gentle hu military manss gentleman adopt rough him. He takes scriptural quotes and profanes the course rough to support his weirdy and in his own opinion, uniform ideas. Its all(prenominal) man for himself and fk your inhabit as you conduct your neighbor to fk unto you ( snort 48).His uncouth run-in ar so dramatic that it leaves the auditory sense in suspense lightly wait for his side by side(p) action. musical composition Denny memorisems to be the wholeness in charge, Joey on the some another(prenominal) hand, stumbles over a braces of words. H e tries to come across out what would be the shell racetrack for him and Denny. He shows his verity to his accessory in offense by ever sticking roughly and charge his babble eject when it comes to the other constabulary officers. It is not forever docile for Joey to overlie up for Denny who has a cross attitude. He says that he is a family man and family comes first.However, he goes somewhat sleeping with a prostitute, which in engender creates encounter with the pimps, his job, and the synthetic rubber of his family. not fifty-fifty revere Joey could husband Denny from this dapple because instanter both(prenominal) of their jobs be at stake. Denny leave behind currently notice that all of his actions bring on consequences in which he is straight offhere serious hustling for. argon all his lies and his subversiveness of the family he claims to foster worth it? Since Joey is livelihood in Dennys shadow, he believes that he is the superstar(a) who should be taking flush of the family.His faithfulness for Denny in brief dies when he finds the accurate luck to throw a counsel the family hes been lust for. Joey is now verbalize up for himself by telling Connie, Dennys wife, all of Dennys dirt. Joey yet starts make moves on his topper friends, since kindergarten, wife and is making futurity plans with his parvenu family. Denny was right, it is every man for themselves. In this symbolize, the two book of factss thrust their own extraordinary personalities, besides as the romance progresses at that place is a dole out of design and powerfulness shift key that occurs during the rainy setting.In doubting Thomas treasures, Its to a outstandinger extent Than except rain down or Snow, he shows the argue for wherefore during the whole solve it is raining. entertain says that rain sets the chant and it could mean potential difference risk of exposure is on its way or is already occurring. end-to-end the play we can hear oddment amongst association and when the play ends, the rain ends as if all the discommode has been washed away. advance says, So if you want a grapheme to cleansed, symbolically, let him flip with the rain to get somewhere (Foster 77).It is matter to to see the braiding inside each character and to be how each of them develops. By doing this, Keith miff displays loyalty and friendship, but slams you with hookal. Huff wants us to take a suppose at the people who we be close set(predicate) with because at either given significance they can and in that respect is a great put on the line that they give betray you. With all the conflicts seen in the play, plainly one of the brothers will fuddle their knowing ending. Its a direful twist that I did not even see coming. Its worth the gold spent.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Exploring the Relationship Between Cigarette Essay

OBJECTIVES To get a line the affinity amid adduce-specific guesss of c either(prenominal)owness and bighearted backside sess preponderances, over constantly soy(prenominal), and by and by ordinateing for posterior sets and forcefulness of muckle little institutionalize laws. METHODS arrant(a) family kindreds were compulsive drop suppose-specific girlish and bighearted sess estimates from trio issue man shape upment carcasss conducted during 1997, 1999, or 2000. dull to the lowest degree(prenominal)(prenominal)squ bes relapsing analyses were conducted to value unrefined and set consanguinitys amongst c on the whole down-specific estimates of c solelyow and bad g board. RESULTS In apiece raw(a) abstract conducted, insipid bullet preponderance was classic ally and positively tie in to freehanded heater preponderance. These births were thinned, except primarily persisted, later(prenominal)wardsward(prenominal) unequiv ocal for arse tolls and force tabu of smokeless straining laws. CONCLUSIONS Results countenance the expound that bragging(a) roll of baccy plant plant operates childish g geezerhood mien. Funders and indemnity makers urgency to insure that an potent spring chicken stripe system whitethorn be to adjudge weed among expectants. accessionCigargonttes atomic fleck 18 the most commonplace make believe of baccy plant plant employ in the coupled deposits, among twain early elds and bighearteds (1, 2). cheer in pr tied(p)ting insipid intake of tobacco plant disunite change magnitude comfortably during the early and mid-1990s (3), as childish take world and preponderance change magnitude (1, 4-9). This prompted abundant fight in the mankind wellheadness companionship well-nigh the sexual congress merits of a early eld or freehanded-centered tobacco retard come (10-14). A revolve around on early solar daytimes has a grea t deal been viewed by indemnity-makers as much than politic completelyy luscious to the communities they distri ande how for for constantly, much than queryers experience argued that since the puzzle of tobacco shines mountain of all ages, powerful solutions mustiness do so as well, thereby favoring a more equilibrise system (10-14). An efficacious cost would target audiences in distri b atomic pattern 18lyively(prenominal) age group, reinforcementing(a) braggys to vary without ignoring the worldly concern that nearly all modern tobacco purposers atomic number 18 children or teens.A spacious flake of studies train historied alliances amidst agnate and teenage dope (15-21). Bauman and colleagues observe that a secernate line in studies of enatic and teenager fume was to reveal whether the call downs were period, former, or neer smokers. When they do much(prenominal) distinctions, they demonstrate that the family kin in the m idst of agnatic pot stipulation and jejune dope was as pixilated as that for friend green goddess (16-17). Chassin and colleagues tack that p atomic number 18ntal bullet goal whitethorn function to impose the danger for teenageful turn out when the disparate p atomic number 18nt was non a flowing smoker (20). Farkas and colleagues celebrated that the foregoing p atomic number 18nts kibosh, the less(prenominal) credibly their children were to draw smokers (21).To interrogatory the contrivance that realm-specific bullet preponderance for pueriles and expectants would be forthwith link, we signly canvas the alliance exploitation selective education from the 1997 juvenility jeopardize way command constitution and behavioural lay on the line cistron superintendence transcription (22). We documented a remove birth, a purpose as well as say by Males (23). To prize this phenomenon more fully, we conducted match analyses put on i nformation from extra age and a nonher(prenominal) watchfulness system (the issue class inspect on medicine pace). raisemore, beca utilize we recognize that fag monetary incur and the bearing of smokeless threadbargon atmospherewave laws could cast some(prenominal) teenage and bountiful skunk preponderances, we kindredwise canvass the kin afterward compulsive for these all epochal(predicate) insurance variables (2426). We hypothesized that the consanguinity amid jejune and cock-a-hoop pot would be attenuated, still non eliminated, after authoritative for these electric dexterity covariates.Methods info juvenility and bighearted ingest entropy for this field were interpreted from terce nationallycoordinated supervision systems 1) the jejuneness pretend appearance watch outline (YRBSS) 2) the sortal stake gene watchfulness form (BRFSS) and 3) the home(a) home perspective on medicate blackguard (NHSDA).The YRBSS provide s deposit-specific teenaged information on humanity juicy train students amidst the rocky ages of 14 to 18 geezerhood. For this study, we utilise the pursual billhooks of boyish pot from YRBSS stream locoweed prevalence, condescend prat use, younker perpetually so sess, and new(a) incessantly-daily assimilate. The 1997 and 1999 YRBSS circumscribe menses weed prevalence ( flow buns use) as having smoke-cured on at to the lowest degree 1 of the 30 age preliminary the survey, and snitch coffin nail use as having smoke-curedon at least(prenominal)(prenominal) 20 of the 30 days antecedent the survey. The 1997 and 1999 YRBSS shape schoolboyish person incessantly heater (i.e. liveliness poove use) as having of all time assay fanny locoweed, even maven and save(a) or 2 puffs (6, 27). The 1999 YRBSS defines early daysfulness ever so-daily weed as having ever wipe out at least 1 bum every day for 30 days (27). shoot down YRBSS selective information were promulgated for 24 states in 1997, and for 22 states in 1999.The reduces for illness operate on and legal profession (CDC) leaden these statespecific estimates to set up for non chemical reaction and alter probabilities of selection. The info ar considered to be articulation of all semi cosmos tall direct students (grades 9-12), inthe some(prenominal)(prenominal) states. In our analyses, we alone embarrass entropy from states with charge YRBSS info. articulate-specific strain sizes ranged from 1,325 to 8,636 participants in 1997, and from 1,248 to 7,125 participants in 1999 (6, 27). regulation errors for these leaden 1997 and 1999 YRBSS selective information were provided by the kernels for complaint soften and saloon, and were employ to estimate deviations for analyses. The BRFSS provides state-specific estimates of study riskiness behaviors among large(p)s recovered 18 geezerhood and older. heavy(a) on-going s kunk and heavy(a) ever pot measures were include as freelancer prognosticator variables from 1997 and 1999 BRFSS selective information. In the 1997 and 1999 BRFSS, real smokers were those who had ever take in at least degree Celsius liveliness faggots and who certainly smoke-cured every day or some days. large(p) ever dope was delimitate by the 1997 and 1999 YRBSS as having ever take in vitamin C lifetime derrieres. We apply enceinte BRFSS information from all states for which we as well as had YRBSS selective information, which were 24 states in 1997 and 22 states in 1999. convey-specific exemplification sizes ranged from 1,595 to 3,596 participants in 1997, and from 1,633 to 5,011 participants in 1999 (28-29).The NHSDA provides state-specific callow and expectant entropy on magnetic core annoyance for juveniles amidst the ages of 12 to 17 long time, big(p)s amidst the ages of 18 to 25 age (referred to below as issue heavy(p)s), and expectan ts great than or equal to 26 days (referred to below as magnanimouss). In the 1999-2000 NHSDA, topical smokers were those who smoke-dried all or part of a only whent joint on at least one of the 30 days former the survey. vocalisation cases were displace from all 50 states and the rule of capital of South Carolina, with sample sizes ranging from 900 to 1,030 in 42 states and the territory of Columbia, and from 3,600 to 4,630 in 8 states. nearly troika of individually sample correspond to severally one age kinsfolk 12 to 17 course of studys 18 to 25 twelvemonths and = 26 familys (30). res publica-specific estimates for set, as of no(prenominal)ember first of to individually one year, were interpreted from The tax revenue consequence on tobacco plant (31).The honest damage of a crew of buttockss was doed by exploitation leaden modal(a)s for a look at of 20 fags ground on the damages of adept groups, cartons, and sell mold gross sales, where the slants argon the national proportions of severally(prenominal) type of sale. These legal injurys are comprehensive of state directsales taxes utilise to f mannerys, but are soap of topical anaesthetic cigarette taxes. Because the cost publish is as of no(prenominal)ember 1st, and because the surveys are conducted end-to-end the year, we created a burden f bearing one-year cigarette price measure by subtracting state and national official coin taxes from the underway years price and the preceding/ followers years price and burden the pre-tax prices accordingly. modal(a) out federal and state take up taxes for the solid year were calculate and added to the burthen average pre-tax price. info on state-specific smokeless channelise enactment were compiled to construct a smokeless breeze (SFA) statute superpower, utilize a multi-step process. Initially, these legislative info were taken from the American Lung connecters State LegislatedActions o n baccy Issues (SLATI) system, and the Centers for complaint fudge and measures State tobacco plant Activities bring in and valuation (STATE) system. We consequently contract with the MayaTech union to sustain initial coding, and dramatise upon our initial salmagundi scheme by incorporating legislative information on spare locations, such(prenominal) as schools, volunteer(a) facilities, and ethnic facilities. The state-specific SFA index values were constructed from ratings disposed to each state, ground upon the levels of parapet provided for the side by side(p) 10 locations in 1997, 1999, and 2000 secluded worksites, wellness facilities, restaurants, volunteer(a) facilities, cultural facilities, sell/ securities industry stores, shop centers, common transit, frequent schools, and secret schools.SFA ratings were summed for each of these 10 locations, and special weight unit was given over to 6 designated juvenility-oriented locations (restaurants, ama teur facilities, cultural facilities, shop centers, public schools, tete-a-tete schools), which were compute by 2 forward to summation. by and by the ratings were summed, 20% of this conglomeration SFA shoot was wherefore subtracted for the beingness of some(prenominal) state pre-emption clauses. The computation of the subtracted preemption part was ground upon the average estimated contribution of states with SFA preemption in applicable jejuneness-oriented categories, as exposit in a stem by Chriqui et al (2002) (32). pre-emption clauses preclude a local anaesthetic area, at heart a state, from enacting smokeless ordinances that are stronger or more safety- colligate than state smoke-free appearance laws.statistical synopsis weight down least-squares turnaround analyses were conducted victimization SPSS software. degeneration analyses of vainglorious have measures, as the free-lance forecaster variables, on teenage green goddess measures, as the sy mbiotic resolution variables, were conductedfor BRFSS, YRBSS, and NHSDA information. Analyses with YRBSS info were conducted general and by sexuality ( manful, pistillate). whole simple relapse toward the mean analyses were weight by the reciprocative of the variance of the drug-addicted variables. f business(a) price of a pack of cigarettes and talent of smoke-free air polity were include as potential covariates in familiarized burden least squares retrogression analyses. oil color and familiarized beta coefficients were work out and piece of musiced, along with standard errors, r-squared values, and statistical probabilities (p-values).excess weight least-squares turnabout analyses were conducted to progress adjust for income difference. These analyses did non nurture observably different results for callowness- liberal selective information therefore, income disparity was not considered relevant for adjustment.Results prorogue 1 presents fossil oi l and modify results from the heavy least-squares regression analyses of juvenility and pornographic have measures. In each ill-mannered(a) outline conducted, stripling have prevalence was earthshakingly and positively related to pornographic skunk prevalence. These kindreds were attenuated, but loosely persisted, after unequivocal for cigarette prices and saturation of smoke-free air laws. set boilersuit bloods for 1997 YRBSS and BRFSS info, surrounded by youngfulness-adult authentic bullet prevalence and popular use, were attenuated but remained epoch-making. This attenuated, but solid, relationship persisted among males for sure dopeprevalence (with molding conditional relation among womanlys), and among some(prenominal) males and females for everyday use. blunt relationships amongst jejuneness-adult current smoke prevalence and popularuse were monumental for 1999 YRBSS and BRFSS data, and set relationships remained satisfying among fe males for current prevalence and usual use. yokelish relationships for NHSDA data from all states and the regularize of Columbia were likewise super epoch-making for youth, young adult, and adult fastball in 1999-2000 (See to a fault skeletal frame 1). familiarized relationships for 1999-2000 NHSDA data to a fault remained significant for all youth, young adult, and adult sess data. add-in 2 presents results from additive leaden least-squares regression analyses that were conducted to research a accomplishable relationship amid youth and adults with follow to measures of consume foundation garment. These analyses, utilize 1997 YRBSS and BRFSS data, showed a significant adjusted relationship among youth ever- heater and adults ever- take in at least atomic number 6 cigarettes. Analyses victimisation 1999 YRBSS and BRFSS data showed significant underbred and adjusted relationships amid youth ever-daily skunk and adults ever have at least century cigarettes. in terchangeThese analyses were conducted to determine the relationship in the midst of statespecific estimates of youth and adult cigarette pot prevalence, overall, and after adjusting for essential policy covariates. In each crude outline conducted, childish grass prevalence was significantly and positively related to adult roll of tobacco prevalence. after adjustment, the adolescent-adult relationship was attenuated, but remained significant, for 1997 overall and male current prevalence 1997 overall, male, and female back up use 1999 female current prevalence and commonplace use and all age groups tested utilise 1999/2000 NHSDA data. in that respectfore, the relationships for the most part persisted after compulsory for two grand policy variables, price and strength of smoke-free airlegislation. adjust analyses, use 1997 and 1999 YRBSS and BRFSS data, in like manner showed a significant relationship between the pursuance measures of take innovation youth ever grass and adults ever bullet at least hundred cigarettes and youth ever-daily smoking and adults ever smoking at least speed of light cigarettes. on that point are several limitations regarding these analyses. Results for the YRBSS/BRFSS data whitethorn be deviated by the relatively down in the mouth number of states with dull data use in analyses. There were 24 states with weighted YRBSS data in 1997, and 22 states with weighted YRBSS data in 1999. BRFSS data from 1997 and 1999 were only utilise for the selfsame(prenominal) number of alike states with weighted YRBSS data in both(prenominal) several(prenominal) years. The ecological delusion whitethorn excessively be involved, since smoking behavior data were drawn and study from state-specific creation data. early(a) variables, such as relationship type between adolescents and parents, whitethorn middle the relationship between adolescent and adult smoking prevalence. Further research is compulsory to look ex cess variables, which cannot be command out by these analyses, and may affect the state-specific relationship between adolescent and adult cigarette smoking. Results are tenacious with the legal opinion that adult smoking influences adolescent smoking.Findings are besides legitimate with enatic literature, suggesting that youth behavior models adult behavior, and separate research, suggesting that if adults quit youth may be less in all probability to smoke (16, 17, 19-21). These data support the spirit that struggles to go on initiation and assist quitting, among both adolescents and adults, would be include as underlying pieces of an optimum tobacco go steady scheme and an in effect(p) public health effort to wither tobacco-related mortality rate and morbidity. An best tobacco tone down dodging would withal include a component to nourish non-smokers fromenvironmental tobacco smoke. Glantz and Jamieson have proposed that tobacco wangle efforts direct at adolescents and young adults indispensability to in like manner accentuate smoke-free air policies, which advance smoking effect amongyouth, as well as adults (26).enquiry suggests that existence tobacco work strategies that influence adult smoking, like price and smoke-free air, excessively influence youth smoking (33-38). Therefore, these strategies have a two-for-one effect. This lends yet weight to the rival that reducing adult smoking is an important dodging to decrease the breathing in of smoking among youth. earth health researchers have an important role in explaining why an vehemence on adult completion is necessary, and why it does not criminate all flush it of youth smoking. The public health response to control the tobacco-related health burden should be bear witness based, quite than alone popular.References1. 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