Friday, November 29, 2019

Young offenders and the Criminal Justice System

Table of Contents Introduction Juvenile justice system Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The human civilization has from ancient times acknowledged the fact that the children are the future of the present civilization. Our modern era also believes in this ideology. This being the case, our society has always strived to ensure that children and the youth are given the best opportunity to excel.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Young offenders and the Criminal Justice System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, despite all the good intention of the society, there are still a number of children and youth who continue to be on the wrong side of the law. Cole and Smith note that this increase in juvenile deliquescence is as a result of social, economic and other factors prevalent in this era (13). Policy makes have taken care to ensure that these troubled children are not left behind in the quest for a brighter future for all the children. Measures have been taken to ensure that the troubled children who are charged with offences are afforded a chance to rectify their mistakes and become respectable citizens through rehabilitation programs. This has been through the implementation of juvenile justice systems which have been characterized by their correctional as opposed to punishment role. Despite the presence of a functional juvenile justice system in the country, there has been a marked increase in crime rates among children and youths. As a result of this rising rates of crime amongst youths, policy makers have pushed for the increased transfer of juvenile offenders to criminal courts for adult prosecution. This is a move that is hailed by some as being the best manner to reduce juvenile crimes and therefore safeguard the society’s peace. However, there are opponents to these waivers who suggest that such moves result in the reduction in chances of rehabilitation for the juvenile offenders. This paper argues that juveniles should not be waived to adult courts unless they commit heinous crimes such as murder. To reinforce this assertion, this study will perform a critical analysis of the various arguments presented both for and against transferring juveniles to adult courts. A brief overview of the juvenile court system will also be offered to act as a background for the paper. Juvenile justice system The Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century led to a mushrooming of urban settlements and the number of children living in cities rapidly increased (Sims and Preston 46). Juvenile delinquency became an issue in many cities and the welfare of the urban children became a primary concern. The introduction of a separate system of justice for children borrowed heavily from the ideas proposed by the 18th Century English lawyer, William Blackstone (Yeckel 331).Advertising Looking for term paper on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get you r first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Blackstone aimed at categorizing people based on their ages and thus drawing a line between the age where one could be held accountable for their actions and an age where one was absolved from any crime committed. To a large extent, the earlier advocates of juvenile systems considered themselves to be on a humanitarian mission championing the rights of the children. The major difference between the juvenile justice system and the criminal justice system was that juvenile courts aimed to rehabilitate rather than punish. Core to the courts principles was the mission to help troubled children. This benevolent nature of the system led to an informal and non adversarial approach that was not entangled in the procedural rules and formalities that characterized the criminal court systems. Sim and Preston assert that this open nature was all in line with the ultimate goal of the courts which was to guide the young offender towards life as a res ponsible and law-abiding adult (48). The lack of well defined procedures meant that the juvenile court could take extra-legal factors in deciding on how to handle a case. The primary argument by the proponents of automatic judicial waiver of juvenile court jurisdiction is as a result of the increased juvenile crime and violence. While it is true that juvenile crimes are markedly higher that they were in the previous decades, the same can be said about adult crimes. Allard and Young assert that there is no evidence that young people have become disproportionately more crime prone or dangerous at that than the rest of the population (8). Arguably, the alleged increase in juvenile crime is simply a function of population growth which is not only natural but to be expected. Allard and Young go on to demonstrate that the juvenile arrests for serious violent crimes have remained fairly average over the last 30 years (7). The underlying philosophy behind transferring juveniles to the crimi nal justice system is that more severe punishment even if at the expense of rehabilitation will result in reduced crime rates and therefore increase the public safety. However, studies indicate that juvenile offenders in the adult system are more likely to re-offend or commit more serious subsequent offenses than those who remain in the juvenile system (Allard Young 4). Youths and young offenders should not be prosecuted through the criminal justice system unless they commit major crimes such as murder. Instead they should be prosecuted through the juvenile justice system.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Young offenders and the Criminal Justice System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is attributed to the fact that juvenile courts are predisposed to have the best interest of the children or youths in consideration and offer some form of defense and rehabilitation for the children in juvenile facilities . As such, the underlying goal of the juvenile system is to guide the young offender towards life as a responsible and law-abiding adult (Sim and Preston 56). The arguments on juveniles raised by policy markers in the late 1800s resulted in a consensus that juveniles were developmentally inferior compared to adults and as such, juveniles would no longer be held criminally responsible for their actions (Feld 19; Bakken 14). However, while this attribute of benevolence is hailed by many proponents of the juvenile system, these benign actions have resulted in the lack of accountability for their actions by the youths. Waivers can offset this condition since as Feld comments: The rehabilitative ideal has minimized the significance of the offenses as a dispositional criterion. The emphasis on the â€Å"best interests of the child† has weakened the connection between what a person does and the consequences of that act on the theory that the act is at best only symptomatic of real n eeds. (Bakken 13). This argument suggests that the treatment of youths in the juvenile system does not lead to the offender feeling accountable for his/her crimes therefore resulting in a lack of liability. This is as opposed to the adult system in which one is held accountable for their crimes and made to pay for them to the maximum extent permissible by the law. In addition, proponents of the waiver to prosecute the youth in the criminal justice system assert that one of the goals for transferring juvenile offenders to the adult criminal courts is to deter them from taking part in criminal activities in future. However, a research carried out by Donna Bishop in 1996 to highlight the differences in outcomes of juvenile courts compared to the criminal courts on youths showed that juvenile offenders who were transferred to the adult courts received more severe sentences than their counterparts in the juvenile system. In addition to this, the findings showed that the transferred youth had higher re-arrest rates (54%) compared with 32% for the youths dealt with by the juvenile courts ( Rosenheim 87).Advertising Looking for term paper on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In light of such findings, advocates of the juvenile court systems argue that the taking up of waiving as a means to reduce future crimes is a faulty policy. While the juvenile system may not be flawless, these findings demonstrate that the system has not altogether failed and should therefore be experimented with further. To further reinforce this argument, Watt, Howells and Delfabbro use Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory to explain why individuals commit crimes (150). In this theory, Freud believes that all humans have underlying desires. As such, it is only through socialization that these urges can be controlled. Therefore, a person with poor social skills develops a personality disorder which forces him/her to exhibit antisocial tendencies. Those that bring out these tendencies become criminals while those who suppress them become neurotics. This theory is therefore a proponent to the fact that criminals are social misfits trying to compensate for their weaknesses. B earing this in mind, taking young offenders through the criminal justice system does not help them change but instead, makes them more antisocial thereby increasing their chances of committing more serious offences. As Fisher reiterates, the acts of violence exhibited by youths and young offenders are triggered by their need to empower themselves in a society that constantly undermines them (109). Therefore, the solution should not be prosecuting them but rather, to find solutions to factors that lead them into committing crime. To further support his argument as a proponent of youth prosecutions in the criminal justice system, Bakken states that juveniles are capable of hideous crimes as was demonstrated in the Kent v. United States case. A 16 year old, Morris A. Kent was charged with breaking into a woman’s apartment, robbing her and raping her (6). The juvenile court system is evidently not equipped to deal with such kind of violent crimes as its sentencing does not includ e life imprisonment or even the death penalty. Bakken acknowledges that it is cases such as this that make juvenile transfer not only desirable but necessary so as to enable the offender to be tried on criminal charges (7). The waiving system presents a mode through which these malicious offenders can be kept away from the society therefore preserving social harmony. Without waivers, crimes such as those committed by Kent would only be punished marginally and the offender would be free to rejoin the society after only a few years of incarceration. However, Watt, Howells and Delfabbro disagree with this argument by using the interactionist theory of crime causation which asserts that an individual’s interaction with criminals may psychologically influence him/her to commit crime (147). The theory proposes that the chances of an individual committing crime as a result of peer pressure are significantly high. According to Fisher, constant interactions with criminals play a centr al role in the development of criminal behaviors (105). The author states that from these associations, individuals are influenced into committing crime and becoming notorious criminals. This theory proposes that a petty offender can become a hardcore criminal through the association with criminals. It assumes that from such interactions, an individual learns how to think, act and react to different situations like a criminal. As such, imprisoning young offenders may invariably make them worse than they were before getting into the system. To this regard, Watt Howells Delfabbro propose a more positive approach whereby young petty offenders are enrolled in the juvenile justice system where there are positive reinforcement programs that may help them change their behaviors (143). However, Gaines and Miller argue that criminal convictions carry with them a certain stigma as a person is marked as a felon for the rest of their lives (62). The authors suggest that this â€Å"stigmatizat ion† by the society is in fact healthy as it also adds to the deterrence factor since people do not want to be viewed as social misfits. The juvenile court system is structured in such a way that these long-term consequences to the offender are not present. In as much as this statement holds true, adult conviction also results in some socioeconomic consequences such as the person being compelled to report their conviction on job application or being barred from particular types of jobs. These factors have serious psychological effects on an individual. For example, no matter how much an individual is trying to change his/her ways, the criminal records and the social limitations associated with them will never go away. As such, these realities often foster feelings of frustration and other antisocial tendencies. These are key factors that may lead an individual into causing crime as a means of acting-out. These bleak realities further support the statement that youth offenders should not be go through the criminal justice system and that other alternatives should be found. The rationale behind the establishment of the juvenile system was to protect the interests of the children who were deemed as being less liable than adults since they were morally and emotionally less developed (Rosenheim 91). This almost paternal view is the main difference between juvenile courts and criminal courts whereby the juvenile courts emphasis on the â€Å"best interests† of the violators. By indiscriminately waiving juvenile offenders to the adult court system, the criminal justice system will have failed in its initial goal which was to protect the interest of young offenders and hopefully rehabilitate them into useful members of the society. However, it can be argued that the juvenile system was established in an era when the capability and emotional intelligence of the youth developed at a fairly slower pace. In the modern era, children are exposed to all kinds of information which result in greater understanding. As such, the laws should be amended to accommodate these new realities. Conclusion This study set out to argue that juveniles should not be waived to adult courts. To underscore this point, the paper has performed a brief overview of the juvenile system in America as well as an in-depth analysis of the arguments forwarded both for and against waivers. However, this paper has clearly demonstrated that there are other means through with juvenile criminality can be tackled. Considering the risk that waivers could results in the conversion of juvenile offenders into hardcore criminals, the evidence in this paper suggests that more intervention-based measures should be implemented to ensure that young offenders do not get into the criminal justice system unless they commit heinous crimes. Works Cited Allard, Patricia and Malcolm Young. Prosecuting Juveniles in Adult Court: Perspectives for Policymakers and Practitioners, 2002. Web. http: // Bakken, Nicholas. (2007). You do the Crime, You do the Time: A Socio-Legal History of the Juvenile Court and Transfer Waivers, 2002. Web. Burrow, John. (2005). Punishing Serious Juvenile Offenders: A Case Study of Michigan’s Prosecutorial Waiver Status, 2002. Web. Cole, George and Cristopher Smith. The American System of Criminal Justice. New York : Cengage Learning, 2006. Print. Fisher, Bonnie. â€Å"Crime Prevention.† Journal of Security Education 2.1 (2006): 103 – 111. Print. Gaines, Larry and Roger Miller. Criminal Justice in Action. New York: Cengage Learning, 2006. Print. Rosenheim, Margaret. A Century of Juvenile Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print. Sims, Barbara and Pamela Preston. Handbook of Juvenile Justice: Theory and Practice. California: CRC Press, 2006. Print. Watt, Bruce, Kevin Howells and Paul Delfabbro. (2004). â€Å"Juvenile Recidivism: Crimi nal Propensity, Social Control and Social Learning Theories.† Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 11.1 (2004): 141 – 153. Print. Yeckel, Josef. â€Å"Violent Juvenile Offenders: Rethinking Federal Intervention in Juvenile Justice.† Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law 51 (1997): 331. Print. This term paper on Young offenders and the Criminal Justice System was written and submitted by user Akem1 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

The Number of Countries in the World

The Number of Countries in the World The answer to the seemingly simple geographical question of How many countries are there? is that it depends on whos doing the counting. The United Nations, for example, recognizes 241 countries and territories. The United States, however, officially recognizes fewer than 200 nations. Ultimately, the best answer is that there are 196 countries in the world. Heres why. United Nations Member States There are 193 member states in the United Nations. This total is often cited inaccurately as the actual number of countries in the world; its inaccurate because there are two other members with limited status. Both the Vatican (officially known as the Holy See), which is an independent nation, and the Palestinian Authority, which is a quasi-governmental body, have been granted permanent observer status at the United Nations. These two entities can take part in all official UN activities but cannot cast votes in the General Assembly. Likewise, some nations or regions of the world have declared their independence and are recognized by a majority of UN member states yet are not part of the United Nations. Kosovo, a region of Serbia that declared independence in 2008, is one such example.   Nations Recognized by the United States The United States officially recognizes other nations through the State Department. As of May 2018, the State Department recognized  195 independent countries around the world. This list reflects the political agenda of the United States of America and its allies. Unlike the United Nations, the United States maintains full diplomatic relations with Kosovo and the Vatican. However, one nation is missing from the State Departments list that should be on it. The Nation That Isnt The island of Taiwan, formally known as the Republic of China, meets the requirements for an independent country or state status. However, all but a handful of nations refuse to recognize Taiwan as an independent nation. The political reasons for this date back to the late 1940s, when the Republic of China was ousted from mainland China by Mao Tse Tungs communist rebels and ROC leaders fled to Taiwan. The communist Peoples Republic of China maintains that it has authority over Taiwan, and relations between the island and mainland have been strained. Taiwan was actually a member of the United Nations (and even the Security Council) until 1971 when mainland China replaced Taiwan in the organization. Taiwan, which has the worlds 29th-largest economy, continues to press for full recognition by others. But China, with its growing economic, military, and political clout, has largely been able to shape the dialogue on this issue. As a result, Taiwan cannot fly its flag at international events such as the Olympics and must be referred to as Chinese Taipei in some diplomatic situations. Territories, Colonies, and Other Non-Nations Dozens of territories and colonies are sometimes erroneously called countries but dont count because theyre governed by other countries. Places commonly confused as being countries include Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Greenland, Palestine, and Western Sahara. The components of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and England) are  not fully independent countries, either, though they do enjoy a degree of autonomy. When dependent territories are included, the United Nations recognizes a total of 241 countries and territories.   So How Many Countries Are There? If you use the U.S. State Departments list of recognized nations and also include Taiwan, there are  196 countries in the world. The same number is reached if you count the UN voting members, its two permanent observers, and Taiwan. This is why 196 is probably the best current answer to the question.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Entomology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Entomology - Essay Example The narrator's speech pattern, even ignoring her natural accent, is stilted, unnatural, and uncomfortable, making the watcher very aware of the presence of the camera in the room with the speaker. However, as this is a documentary about insects, who obviously do not normally speak at all, it is possible that such awareness of the presence of a camera in the room with the narrator is inevitable. The narrator does not shy away from using the scientifically correct terms for the parts of the insects' genitalia, helping to return the video to a more clinical and scientific feeling than the costumes and acting style would otherwise provide to this documentary. The use of cardboard cut-outs to play the role of the Queen bee in the mating scene avoids any level of eroticism in the scene. This and the use of clinical language helps to remind the viewer that what they are watching is a documentary, not a joke or a spoof short film as it can at times feel. There is much that could be done to m ake this film feel more professional and scientific, even if the purpose of the films is to reach a general audience. This film seems to lack a professional touch that would make it believable and credible to the average movie-goer. However, despite any other possible failings of her films, Rossellini definitely manages to be different from most insect and animal life documentaries. It is certainly more interesting and more entertaining than most films I have seen in the documentary genre. Strange as this movie may seem to the viewer, it does succeed in making the honey bee mating practices unforgettable. I will never now be able to remove the image of the actor portraying the male bee, bleeding to death from his groin as the cardboard Queen flies away with a large stick, representing the male's severed penis, jammed through "her" body. Nor will I be able to forget the image of the cubes of red Jell-o, representing the royal jelly, being offered to a small baby wrapped in a blanket, representing the larval Queen. While the biological informational content of the entire video is rather low, it succeeds in its fundamental purpose: providing an audience made up of non-scientifically-educated adults with basic knowledge of bees and their life cycle. Another documentary in the â€Å"Green Porno† series, on praying mantis mating habits, uses a similar costume design style, but also added in some interesting color and light effects to focus the viewer's attention on the narrator's voice instead of the actual speaker. This video features a model of a praying mantis built of paper or cardboard that resembles an origami sculpture. The general feel of this video is one of simplicity, rather than the previous documentary's cheap feel, though the cheesy effect remains to a certain extent. The video is extremely short and fast, probably to imitate the mating habits of the subject species in question. It exemplifies the life span of the male praying mantis, that he ex ists only to copulate with the female and to feed her so she will bear his young. The video, his life, and the time period of the actual mating all exist only briefly. Again, the level of scientific knowledge imparted by this video is low but functional. Rossellini greatly simplifies the life and habits of the bees and praying mantis, but manages not to take such simplification to the point of error as so often

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Physics of racing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Physics of racing - Research Paper Example 2). Several formulas will determine the calculations made in the research paper to determine several aspects of the mechanics involved in motorcar racing. Introduction The wide-ranging goal of the research paper is to put forward a new prospect on racing physics, comprehensible to the practically motivated non-specialist (Beckman, 2002, p. 6). There are a number of problems that are frequently regarded from a range of sources, capable of preventing quality results from determining the physics behind racing. Regularly, these issues are inclined by automated simulation, and they regularly come up from contest experiences. This research paper will also get extremely technical, attempting to balance a conceptual discourse that every individual ought to get to comprehend. Through an arithmetic analysis, the following paper may be of great interest just to physicists, and with numerical outcomes that might once more be available to all analysts worldwide. Weight transfer Balancing a vehicl e is directing weight transfer through the use of acceleration, brakes and piloting. Applying the brakes adjusts weight to the anterior part of the vehicle, enabling the driver to prompt over-steering of the vehicle. In a similar fashion, throttling adjusts the weight of the vehicle to the back of the vehicle, prompting under-steering and cornering adjusts weight to the reverse side, unpacking the interior part of the wheels (Beckman, 2002, p. 12). The reason behind this adjustment in the weight of the vehicle is that inertia acts via the center of gravity (CG) of the vehicle, which is on top of the ground level. At the same time, adhesive forces act at ground levels via the touching base spots of the wheels. The impacts of weight transfer are relative to the elevation of the CG from the ground. If a much flatter vehicle with a decreased CG was involved in racing, its handling would be much improved and velocity would be higher because weight transfer is not very extreme in comparis on with a much less flat vehicle. The measurement of inert friction is not precisely a constant. Under driving circumstances, numerous effects are used to decrease inert friction of an excellent autocross wheel to an estimated 1.10G (Beckman, 2002, p. 21). These outcomes are a refraction of the wheel, suspension motion, heat and the inflation compression. Nevertheless, the relativity law still stands sensibly true under these circumstances. When the vehicle is accosting, braking, or throttling at the edge, this implies that the adhesive parameters of the wheels can cause them to unload by the weight transfer’s shifting from sticking to sliding off the ground. Each time a vehicle tilts a little or gets a little sideways, the vehicle will most likely lose the race if the mistake is not made up through recovery of laps. Certain calculations formulas and elements can be used to determine the forces and inclinations vehicles and their drivers can make to succeed in a race. For ins tance, in order to make a right turn, a force indicating the right is obliged to act on the vehicle that steer it away from the unbent line it unsurprisingly attempts to pursue. Should the force remain steady, the vehicle will be inclined to move in a circular manner (Beckman, 2002, p. 29). Basic laws Basically, there are three laws that have to be agreed so as

Monday, November 18, 2019

Supply chain management plan in construction project Coursework

Supply chain management plan in construction project - Coursework Example In the new multi-storey car park, emphasis is placed on the reduction of the inventory costs, timely availing of the construction items without delay of the required goods, least manpower wastage entailed in the process and professional management of the process. The plan dwells heavily on the design of the inventories, thus creating a tightly controlled and regulated internal inventories, proper and timely distribution of items, proper management of the internal production processes, and augmented communication between the store-keeping and constructions processes. The SCM) plan for the construction industry has huge consideration for the structural construction technique applied. For client CPI who has some of the contractors readily assigned and other yet to be vetted for tackling of the construction process it is highly relevant for the enacting of the entire construction plan. Facilitation of raw material logistics and movements begins from their various sources. Apart from pre-cast concrete that ICP manufactures at its plants other materials are supplied from their different source points. The standardization process from the ICP gives the ICP great hold of the quality generated from structural strength and durability of the materials. ICP finds it hard to assign to the contractor design and manufacture of the precast since the skill is little in the west Yorkshire. The precast also demands effective time and duration to cure well in a specific environment before use. All the materials will be collected at collection or storage points in the designed place in the facility. Proper and timely financing operations and excellent information gathering will lead into allocation of contracts to least and effective bidders to aid in having the low cost materials. According to the provided building projects deadline procedures or timeline management every product will be

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Factors Affecting the Rate of a Reaction

Factors Affecting the Rate of a Reaction The aim of this experiment is to investigate whether changing the concentration of a solution will have any effect on the rate of the reaction. We are trying to prove that increasing the concentration will speed up the rate of the reaction. The rate of a chemical reaction is the rate at which reactants are used up or products are produced. In order to measure the rate of reaction we measure the amount of reactants used or products produced over a certain period of time. In our experiment we have chosen to use sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. This is because this reaction would be the easiest for us to note the rate of the reaction. According to Le Chateliers Principle; â€Å"if a system that is in equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium position will change in order to oppose the disturbing influence and re-establish equilibrium† (1). Therefore if the concentration of a substance is increased then the reaction that removes that substance will be favoured in order to re-establish equilibrium in the system. So if we are increasing the concentration of the reactants then the forward reaction will speed up. Based on this information we can predict that the rate of the reaction of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid will speed up with increased concentration. Since increasing the concentration will increase the amount of molecules we can predict that there will be more effective collisions taking place. The more effective collisions taking place, the quicker the rate of the reaction will be. Increasing the concentration of a substance will increase the rate of the reaction. 5 Equal Volume conical flasks One 500cm ³ measuring cylinder Two 100cm ³ measuring cylinder One 10cm ³ measuring cylinder 8g of sodium thiosulphate 35cm ³ concentrate hydrochloric acid 1 electronic scale 1 filter paper 1 stopwatch 1 piece of white paper with black cross First we had to use the electronic scale to measure out 8g of sodium thiosulphate and then dissolve the 8g of thiosulphate in 200cm ³ of water. This was done in the 500cm ³ measuring cylinder. The next step was to use the 100cm ³ measuring cylinder to measure and pour 50cm ³, 40cm ³, 30cm ³, 20cm ³ and 10cm ³ respectively into the five identical conical flasks. In order to make sure that each conical flask had a total volume of 50cm ³ of solution we added 10cm ³, 20cm ³, 30cm ³ and 40cm ³ of water into the last four flasks. The next step in the process was to use the other 100cm ³ measuring cylinder to prepare a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. This was done by adding 35cm ³ of hydrochloric acid to 65cm ³ of water. Once all the solutions were prepared it was time to conduct the experiment. We placed the conical flask on the piece of paper over the black cross. We used the 10cm ³ measuring cylinder to measure 5cm ³ of hydrochloric acid solution and added this to the conical flask. As soon as it was added we started the stopwatch. We observed the solution and as soon as it turned a creamy-yellow and the cross could not be seen the stopwatch was stopped and the time was written down. This was then repeated on the other four conical flasks. Once we had completed all the tests we cleaned out all the apparatus and repeated the whole experiment again with the remaining hydrochloric acid solution so that we could compare the results. Flask Sodium Thiosulphate concentration (cm ³) Time (s) (experiment 1) Time (s) (experiment 2) 1 50 32.72 24.16 2 40 33.80 27.90 3 30 54.60 43.01 4 20 84.92 71.01 5 10 197.40 158.19 From the above tables and graphs we can see that our hypothesis is correct. Increasing the concentration of a solution will increase the rate of the reaction. We can also see from the table and the graphs that the rate of the reaction differed in experiment 2. The reason for this could be that when we prepared the dilute solution of hydrochloric acid we did not mix it properly with the water. This lead to there being a stronger dilute in the bottom of the measuring cylinder compared to that at the top of the measuring cylinder. This would have affected the results as it means that in experiment 1 there was a weaker solution of hydrochloric acid used, when it came to experiment 2 we were using the solution at the bottom of the cylinder and that part of the solution is stronger and more concentrated. This actually helped prove our hypothesis as we can see that in experiment 2 the rate of the reaction was shorter. This is because there was a higher concentration of hydrochloric acid being added to the solution. In the graph concentration vs. 1/time we can see that a straight line is formed. This means that there is an inverse relationship between concentration and the rate of a reaction. As the concentration of a substance is increased then the time for the reaction to take place is decreased. From all of the above results from the experiment conducted we can conclude that the rate of a reaction is affected by the concentration of a substance. As there is a higher concentration of molecules in the substance then there will be more effective collisions taking place which means that the reaction will take place much faster. Chemistry Practical Investigation Preparation In this practical investigation we are going to investigate the effect that concentration has on the rate of a reaction. In order to do this we are going to conduct an experiment which involves adding different concentrations of a substance to another substance and then take note of the different rates of reaction, if any difference is to be seen. If a difference is seen then we can come to the conclusion that concentration does have an effect on the rate of a reaction. According to Le Chateliers Principle; â€Å"if a system that is in equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium position will change in order to oppose the disturbing influence and re-establish equilibrium† (1). Therefore if the concentration of a substance is increased then the reaction that removes that substance will be favoured in order to re-establish equilibrium in the system. So if we are increasing the concentration of the reactants then the forward reaction will speed up. Based on this information we can predict that the rate of the reaction of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid will speed up with increased concentration. Since increasing the concentration will increase the amount of molecules we can predict that there will be more effective collisions taking place. The more effective collisions taking place, the quicker the rate of the reaction will be. Thus we can conclude in our hypothesis that increasing the concentration of a substance will increase the rate of the reaction. The rate of a chemical reaction is the rate at which reactants are used up or products are produced. In order to measure the rate of reaction we measure the amount of reactants used or products produced over a certain period of time. In our experiment we have chosen to use sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. This is because this reaction would be the easiest for us to note the rate of the reaction. Other reactions that we couldve used include the reaction that is represented in the following equation; 2 NO + O2 = 2 NO2. The reason that we did not chose this reaction is because it would be to complicated for us to monitor the rate of the reaction. It is for this reason that we chose to use the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. In this experiment we are going to prepare five measuring cylinders each with different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate in. This is to test what effect the different concentrations have on the rate of the reaction. In order to make sure that each flask has an equal total volume we will add water to the each measuring cylinder. The next step of the process is to draw a cross on a piece of paper and place it under the measuring cylinder. Once that has been done we will add a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid to each of the measuring cylinders. Since we know that this reaction produces a creamy yellow precipitate it will not be hard to measure the rate of the reaction. Once the hydrochloric acid has been added we will time how long it takes until we cannot see the cross on the paper, this means until the creamy yellow precipitate is formed and the solution becomes turbid. If our hypothesis is correct then we will find that the measuring cylinders with a higher concentration of sodium thiosulphate will take quicker to form a creamy-yellow precipitate, thus proving that increasing concentration increases the rate of the reaction. Bibliography: M. Mann: Physical Science 12 textbook and workbook October 2007: page 16-1

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Theory of Graviton Fields Essay -- Atomic Structures

The Source, Nature, and Generation of the Graviton Field Summary The paper examines the possibility that atomic structures exists as complete self sustaining entities in identical form throughout the Universe, without any form of external input. The paper examines the energy budget of an atomic structure and concludes that gravitational attraction forms an inherent function of the structure in the form of low level quanta ejected from the structure as the final spent particle. It is postulated that all so far identified sub atomic particles are sourced from a single particle, in the central, heavy core, giving up energy in a Bohr/quanta manner as they perform particular functions within the structure. These various energy demands are consistent with the often quoted atomic half life of 1032 years. A mechanism by which a self sustaining structure generates an attraction field is described, together with the mechanism by which multiple structures interact. The process relating to interaction within a single structure is also described. The paper examines the nature of the gravitational field. It follows from the prognosis that the atomic particles identified so far from accelerators, are formed by a quanta/energy degradation which takes place. The core exists as a single entity in an electron, this same particle forming an assembly in all the structures identified in the periodic table. Key Index Phrases The nature of the graviton field. Introduction In the theory now presented by the author, the long sought graviton particle is viewed as the 'Spent' or residual, low energy particle arising from the proton/neutron/electron exponential decay process. This decay represents the energy required to support th... ....dï  ¦,dï  ±,G.M] . dR Since d(E) = R.dF d (E) = ï  ²,. G.M. R2 dï  ¦,.dï  ±, Over the whole surface ïÆ' ¥,E = 2ï  ², ï  ¦,ï  ±,G.M.R2 Substituting figures, E = 56.7x1024 kJ A.2.6 Energy requirement per atom dE = 56.7x1024 kJ 0.71x1050 = 7.98x10-23 kJ Converting to eV d (eV) = 0.0253 eV for Vanadium.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Healthy People Essay

1. Explain the use of each of the six phases of the nursing process. The nursing process consists of six dynamic and interrelated phases: assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation and evaluation 2. List the elements of each of the six phases of the nursing process Asses- gather information about the clients condition, Diagnose-identify the client’s problems, plan and identify outcomes- set goals of care and desired outcomes and identify appropriate nursing actions, Implement- perform the nursing actions identified in planning, Evaluate- Determine if goals met and outcomes acheived 3. Describe the establishment of the database When you have obtained the history and completed the physical examination with accuracy, you have the needed information to establish a database ( a large store or bank of information) 4. Discuss the steps used to formulate a nursing diagnosis A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgement about individual, family, or community responses about actual or potential health problems/life processes. 5. Differentiate between types of health problems It is important to distinguish collaborative problems and medical diagnoses from nursing diagnoses. these two types of problems are defined and discussed separately 6. Describe the development of patient centered outcomes The nurse develops expected outcomes for the established nursing diagnosis. A patient outcome statement provides a description of the specific, measurable behavior that the patient will be able to exhibit in a given time frame following the interventions. 7. Discuss the creation of nursing orders Because nursing interventions offered in textbooks and care planning manuals are often broad, general statements that indicate an activity to be performed it is often necessary to convert these nursing interventions to more specific instructional statements 8. Explain the evaluation of a nursing care plan Evaluation is determination made about the extent to which the established outcomes have been achieved 9. Demonstrate the nursing process by preparing a nursing care plan Completing the initial assessment, analyzing the data, writing the nursing diagnoses, selecting outcomes, and selecting appropriate nursing interventions, it is the nurse’s responsibility to communicate the detailed plan of care for the patient 10. Explain north american nursing diagnosis association international (nanda-i), nursing interventions classification (NIC), and nursing outcomes classification (NOC) NANDA-approved an official definition for nursing diagnoses, This standardized language, developed at the university of iowa encourages enhanced communication between nurses about nursing intervenions. NOC which measures the effects of nursing care, is the effort of a group of researchers working at the university of iowa. 11. Describe the use of clinical pathways in managed care A clinical pathway is a multi disciplinary plan that schedules clinical interventons over an anticipated time fram for high-risk, high volume, high-cost type of cases. 12. Discuss critical thinking in nursing Critical thinking for nursing as a discipline- specific reflective reasoning process that guides a nurse in generating implementing, and evaluating approaches for dealing with client care and professional concerns. 13. Define evidenced-based practice The use of research to determine best practices, or the interventions or approaches to patient care that will have the best impact on patient outcomes. In contrast, professionals in the past used educational knowledge, consultation with peers and specialists, and their own experiences to make decisions about patient care and to select interventions.

Friday, November 8, 2019

values essays

values essays Geographically close but rather different The United States and Mexico are located geographically besides each other. They are interrelated in many aspects, such as economy, traditions, and ways of life, but they differ in some minimal aspects. People in each of the countries have a different way of living the values of parentship and personal control over the environment. People from different parts of the world get along with their families in different ways. A value related to this is called parentship meaning the relationship between parents and their children. Even if relationships between parents and their children exist all over the world, there are countries that have different customs. In Mexico, children depend a lot on their parents. Children in Mexico live with their parents even after graduating of high school. There, parents support their children until they have plenty of money to survive and get married. In comparison with the United States, children are more independent of their parents. There, most of graduates leave their houses to go to a foreign university. They believe that the future would bring even greater happiness. (Kohls, 4). In Mexico there are a lot of parties, and holidays where families get together to celebrate. This differs from the United States in that there are not enough reunions to get families together. A la st thing that can be seen different in these two countries is how advice is given to children by their parents. In Mexico when there is a problem, children ask their parents for advice to help them solve it. In the United States since most of the adolescents live away from their parents, it is not common for them to ask their parents for advice. Parentship is very different in Mexico compared to the United States. The environment is getting worse each year. Pollution, garbage, and the ozone layer effect is increasing a lot with time. This is be ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The Warring States Period of Ancient China

The Warring States Period of Ancient China The Warring States period in Ancient Chinese historywhich followed the period known as Spring and Autumn (770-476 B.C.) during the  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Chou (Zhou) Dynastyran from about 475-221 B.C. It was a period of violence and chaos during which the philosopher Sun-Tzu is said to have lived and culture to have flourished. Seven States of China There were about seven states of China during the Warring States period, including Yen, which was not one of the contending states, and 6 that were: ChIChuChinWeiHanChao Two of these states, the Chin and Chu, came to dominate, and in 223, the Chin defeated the Chu, establishing the first unified Chinese state two years later. During the Spring and Autumn period, which preceded the Warring States, warfare was feudal and reliant on the war chariot. During the Warring Period, military campaigns were directed by the states who fitted out their soldiers with individual weapons. Sources: Encyclopedia Britannica and The Oxford Companion to Military History. Examples During the Warring States Period, but elsewhere in the world, Alexander the Great conquered his enormous Hellenistic Greek empire, Rome came to dominate Italy, and Buddhism spread to China.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Early Head Start (EHS) as a Foundation which Works to Assist Low-Incom Essay - 1

Early Head Start (EHS) as a Foundation which Works to Assist Low-Income Families - Essay Example In this way, new ideas will be explored along with the addition of funds and resources. Communication is necessary to form a discourse community. A significant step is to remain patient. To achieve the desired outcome groups must remain firm. It may require a little time before things start to work accordingly. Early Head Start (EHS) is a foundation which works to assist low-income families. This foundation serves infants, toddlers and pregnant women. EHS has made a series of goals. These goals include the need for primary education for parents to meet up with their needs and to provide for their children efficiently. EHS also works to make sure the children are in a safe environment. Other communities are also made to participate in the generation of funds and resources. EHS has several services. These services include center-based services for children in their early stages. Home-based services include weekly visits to the helped families to help maintain them. Moreover, Family Child Care Services provides educational funds for the children. ( I live in Maple Leaf Dr, League City. It is an active community where adults and children are always witnessed indulge in their activities. A school bus is responsible to pick and drop the children to the nearby school. In this way, adults which do not work from home do not have to worry about dropping their children to school. My community continues to thrive and work for a better future, due to which It can be positively be considered of good quality. People assemble their garbage in the corner of their houses from where it is collected. Gardening is also actively practiced. In this way, lawns are maintained keeping the environment clean. People are responsible for their safety. Community members remain active so theft is best avoided. Noise pollution is the least as my community is a distance away from industries. People have built  their own houses. Some are also living on rent.  

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Survey result section with pie charts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Survey result section with pie charts - Essay Example From the results, some teachers felt that direct instruction to the students either individually or in class was an effective method. The numbers were however less (12%) as compared the group the group that preferred a cooperative learning approach moderated by the teacher (76%). In this method the learners would choose the topic of their liking and research on it before teaching their fellow students. None of the teacher preferred thought it was a good idea for the learner to be left to acquire the knowledge alone. This would deny the learner a chance to have a different perspective of the concept like the peers. The case study results indicated that 65 percent of the teachers (15) preferred to resolve the situation by dividing the students into mixed groups and letting them assist each other in learning (Answer 1). Some 22% of the teachers interviewed (5) thought it suitable to teach the whole group at the pace of the slow learner (answer 2). The remaining 13% or 3 of the interviewed teachers thought that the teacher should divide the student according to ability and teach them differently (answer 3). None of the teacher interviewed thought that teaching at the pace of the high level learning ability students was beneficial. From the results, a majority preferred the approach of combining the higher level learning ability with the low level learning students. This means that the students could cooperate with each other to effectively acquire the knowledge from their peers better. It should be noted that it is difficult to determine the learning pace of the slow students. This explains the reason why the method of mixed ability grouping was preferred by the majority. Dividing the group into two was not proposed by many. This because it would be difficult to foster social leaning between the learners and how the learners would benefit from each other is not